Monday, May 28, 2012


Q 1. What about offering prayer five times a day with Jama'at?
A. Offering prayer with Jama'at (congregation) is "Waajib" (essential) for every sane and mature male believer provided that he faces no trouble in reaching the mosque. The one who forgoes congregation without any "Shar'i" reason is "Faasiq" (transgressor, disobedient) and his evidence is also unacceptable. He deserves severe punishment and his neighbours will also be sinner if they acquiesce in his sin.
Q 2. What about Jama'at for "Jumu'ah", "Eid", "Taraawih" and "Witr" prayers?
A. Jama'at is must (an obligatory condition) for Jumu'ah and Eid prayers and "Sunnat Kifaayah" (if performed by a few Muslims all will be relieved of the obligation otherwise all will be held responsible) for Taraawih prayer.
Jama'at is "Mustahab" (commendable act) for "Witr" prayer in the holy month of "Ramadaan" and Sunnat for the prayer of solar eclipse.
Q 3. Is congregational prayer (Jama'at) essential for women?
A. It is impermissible for women (young or old) to offer any prayer in Jama'at irrespective of day or night or Jumu'ah and Eid prayers. Likewise, they can not attend "Waz" (preaching gatherings). However, some Muslim scholars have now allowed it in view of growing outing of women in markets and other places.
Q 4. In which conditions can Jama'at be abandoned?
A. Following are the excuses to forgo Jama'at:
(1).Torrential rain, (2) heavy mud all around, (3) intensely cold, (4)pitch darkness, (5) hurricane, (6) apprehension of the loss of valuables/belongings or (7) food, (8) fear of creditor when one is penniless, (9) fear of tyrant or an oppressor,(10) intense need to defecate, (11) to urinate or (12) to break wind, (13) one is extremely hungry and food is being served, (14) one apprehends to miss the caravan if he joins Jama'at, (15) tending the sick who may suffer and feel nervous if left alone.
Q 5. Which people are permitted not to go to mosque for Jama'at?
A. The people who are permitted not to go to mosque to join Jama'at are: (l).The sick who finds it hard to reach mosque,(2) invalid,cripple,(3)the one whose foot is amputated, (4)paralysed,(5)so old one that he can not go to mosque,(6)blind,even there is one to take him to mosque and (7) an immature who is not bound to join Jama'at.
Q 6. What are the blessings and benefits of offering prayer with Jama'at?
A. An "Hadees" to this effect says: the prayer offered with Jama'at carries twenty-seven-times more reward than the prayer offered individually. Another Hadees says: the believer who offers prayer five times a day with Jama'at and also finds Takbir-e-Ulaa for forty days consecutively for the sake of Allah, is freed from the torment of hell and "Nifaaq" (hypocrisy).
In addition to these great advantages the congregational prayer (Jama'at) also develops harmony and unity among the Muslims, acquaints them with "Shar'i" affairs, issues, provides an opportunity to know about the problems and distress faced by the neighbours, to meet and enjoy the blessings of the pious and saintly people and expectation of the acceptance of prayer by the means of these loved ones of Allah, to know about the plight of the poor and needy people, imbues believers with the spirit of worship, inclines them towards Allah Almighty and keeps them away from the worldly evils and vices till such time they are in Jama'at and so on and so forth.
Q 7. How to stand in Jama'at?
A. Muqtadis (followers) should form rows and stand shoulder to shoulder leaving no gap between them and an individual should stand beside the Imaam on the right side. His feet should be abreast of Imaam (not forward). It is Makrooh for an individual to stand behind or on the left side of the Imaam. Rows should be arranged in such way that the first row consists of men and the second of children. If there is only one child, he should be drawn up in the men's row. The Imaam should stand ahead of his Muqtadis in the centre. It is against Sunnah to stand on the right or left side to lead prayer.
The one who is superior to all Muqtadis in the Jama'at should stand just behind the Imaam in the first row.
Q 8. What about standing in the rear row when there is room in the front row?
A. It is Makrooh to stand in the rear row when there is room in the front row to stand in. If one finds room in the first row while the second is full, he should reach the first row making his way thereto through the second row and stand there. An Hadees gives the glad tidings of absolution to the believer who does so. However, it should be kept in mind that such action may kick up a row due to lack of Islaamic knowledge among Muslims. So it should be done where people understand "Shar'i" issues, affairs.
Q 9. Which things a Muqtadi should not do if Imaam does not?
A. There are five things which a Muqtadi should not do if Imaam leaves those and follow the Imaam i.e. (1).Takbirs of Eid prayer,(2) Qa'adah Ulaa, (3) Sajdah Tilaawat, (4) Sajdah Sahv and (5) Du'aa-e-Qunoot if he fears to miss Rukoo otherwise complete it. As for Qa'adah Ulaa, Muqtadi should prompt (point out the mistake) if Imaam forgets to observe Qa'adah Ula and has not yet stood erect so that he may return to perform it. In case the Imaam has stood upright then Muqtadi should not prompt him but instead follow him otherwise his prayer will be vitiated.
Q10. Which things a Muqtadi should not do if Imaam does?
A. There are four things in which a Muqtadi should not follow the Imaam if he does i.e.(1).Observance of any "Rukn" (essential) more than the prescribed number like performance of two Rukoo and three Sujood in a Rakah or (2) utterance of more Takbirs than sixteen in Eid prayer or (3) saying five Takbirs in funeral prayer or (4) standing up by mistake for the fifth Rakah after Qa'adah Akheera. In this case, if Imaam returns without completing the fifth Rakah, Muqtadi should follow him and complete the prayer with the observance of Sajdah Sahv and if all followed the Imaam and performed Sajdah of the fifth Rakah then the prayer of all inclusive of Imaam will be vitiated.
Q 11. Which things a Muqtadi should observe if Imaam abandons those?
A. The following things should be observed by Muqtadi if Imaam abandons those:(l).Lifting the hands for Takbir-e-Tahreemah, (2) recitation of "Sana" (if Imaam is still reciting Surah Faatehah that too in soft voice), (3) Takbiraat-e-Intiqaal (Takbirs of Rukoo and Sujood), (4) Tasbihaat(remembrance of Allah as prescribed) of Rukoo and Sujood, (5) Tasmee i.e. "Sami Allaa Huleman Hamedah", (6) Tashah-hud, (7) saying Salaam turning the face to both sides, (8) utterance of Takbiraat-e-Tashreeq (which are recited loudly after every obligatory prayer from the Fajr prayer of 9th Zil-Hijj to the Asr prayer of 13th Zil-Hijj).
Q12. What should one do who is offering obligatory prayer himself and in the meanwhile Jama'at is established?
A. If one has just begun his obligatory prayer by himself (individually) or has completed one Rakah of Fajr or Maghrib prayer and in the meantime Jama'at is established there, he should immediately abandon his prayer and join the Jama'at and in case he has observed Sajdah of the second Rakah then he should complete the prayer. As for four Rakah prayer, he should complete two Rakahs if has offered one or is offering the second Rakah and then join the Jama'at. The said two Rakahs offered by him will be counted as Nafl prayer. And in case he has offered three Rakahs then he should not give up his prayer but complete all (four) Rakahs and thereafter join Jama'at with the intention of Nafl prayer. Thus he will gain the reward of Jama'at. However, he can not do so in Asr prayer as after Asr "Nafl" prayer is not lawful.
Q13. What injunction is there for one who is offering Sunnat or Nafl prayer and in the meantime Jama'at is established?
A. If he has begun Nafl prayer and in the meanwhile Jama'at is established then he should not abandon his prayer but complete two Rakahs and in case he is offering the third Rakah then he should complete four Rakahs to join the Jama'at. And in case, he has begun Sunnat prayer of Jumu'ah and Zuhr and in the meantime either "Khutbah" (sermon) is commenced or Jama'at is established he should complete the prayer and then join the Jama'at.
Q14. How to break prayer under intense need?
A. It is Haraam (unlawful) to break prayer unless there is a valid excuse. However, under intense need one can break prayer in standing posture (no need to sit down) saying Salaam (turning his face to the right side).

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Q 1. What is meant by "Imaamat"?
A. "Imaamat" means chieftainship,leadership and leader is called "Imaam". Imaamat of "Salaat"(prayer) means attachment of prayer of a "Muqtadi"(follower) to the prayer of "Imaam" with some conditions. An Hadees in this context says that Imaam is responsible for the prayer of his "Muqtadis". It means that Imaam is wholly responsible for the prayer offered well or deficient by his Muqtadis under his leadership. It is naivety and lack of "Shar'i" knowledge to ask every bearded man to lead prayer. The "Shari'ah" envisages some conditions for Imaamat which every Imaam must possess.
Q 2. What are the conditions for Imaamat?
A. There are six conditions for Imaam provided he is not disabled: (1). He ought to be Muslim, (2) mature or of full 15 years if there is no apparent sign of maturity, (3) sane, (4) male, (5) he must know "Qiraa-at" to such an extent that the prayer led by him is in order and (6) free from disability i.e. he should not suffer from such a disease that renders him unable to lead the prayer.
Q 3. Under whose leadership is prayer "Makrooh Taimhi"?
A. Offering prayer under leadership of slave, rustic, blind, bastard, smartly handsome teenager (whose beard and moustache are not yet visible), leper, leuco derma-affected person whom people abhor and gullible, who is easily deceived in shopping, is "Makrooh Tanzihi" i.e. to offer prayer under their leadership is against decency and no matter if offered. In case these people are in greater know of "Salaat" and "Tahaarah" (matters, issues of prayer and cleanliness) and one better than such is not available then they deserve to lead prayer without any undesirability. There is very slight abhorrence in "Imaamat" of a blind provided that he is mindful of "Taharah".
Q 4. Under whose leadership is prayer "Makrooh Tahreemi"?
A. Offering prayer under the leadership of those who have wrong beliefs (not to the extent of infidelity), "Faasiq-e-Mo'lin" (he who commits major sins openly) like drunkard, gambler, fornicator, usurer, back-biter, the one who shaves his beard or trims or does not keep as prescribed by the "Shari'ah", watcher of dance and music programme, he who describes Hadrat Moula Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) superior to "Shaikhain" (Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique and Hadrat 'Umar Farooq [may Allah be pleased with them]) or he who speaks ill of the Prophet's companions Hadrat Ameer Mu'aawiyah and Hadrat Abu Musa Ash'ari (may Allah be pleased with them), is Makrooh Tahreemi i.e. all prayers if offered under the leadership of such wicked persons will have to be repeated. However, "Jumu'ah" and "Eid" prayers may be offered under the leadership of a heretic and wicked Imaam with undesirability at such place where "Jumu'ah" and "Eid" prayers are held at the same place and that a pious Imaam is not available.
Q 5. Under whose leadership is prayer invalid?
A. Offering prayer under the leadership of one who recites the Holy Qur-aan so incorrectly that its meaning is distorted or he does not perform ablution or takes bath properly or denies any of essentials of Islaamic faith i.e. his wrong beliefs have touched infidelity or he denies the intercession of the Holy Prophet or "Deedaar-e-Ilaahi" (the Splendid Sight of Allah) or torment of grave or "Kiraaman Kaatibeen" (angels recording good and evil deeds of man), is absolutely invalid, for, prayer of such accursed person is no prayer what to talk of offering prayer under his leadership. Even Jumu'ah and Eid prayers under him are invalid.
Q 6. What are the conditions for "Iqtidaa"?
A. "Iqtidaa" means to follow or attach one's prayer to the prayer of Imaam. There are thirteen conditions for it: (1). Muqtadi intends for Iqtidaa, (2) to form intention with "Takbir-e-Tahreemah" or before it provided no such word is said or action done between the intention and Takbir-e-Tahreemah that is alien to prayer, (3) Imaam and Muqtadi must be within the same place, ground or field, (4) the prayer of Imaam and Muqtadi must be the same or Imaam's prayer should be superior to that of Muqtadi's, (5) Imaam's prayer must be right according to Muqtadi's Mazhab (creed) and (6) both of them must consider it right as per their respective creed, (7) woman must not be beside man in row (there are some exceptions in this regard), (8) Muqtadi should not precede Imaam, (9) to be in the know of Imaam's performance of "Rukn" (standing, bowing,prostration etc) by seeing or through other way, (l0) Muqtadi should know whether the Imaam is resident or traveller, be it even after the prayer is over, (11) to participate in every "Rukn" like him or less than him, (13) Muqtadi must not exceed Imaam in respect of the conditions of prayer.
Q 7. Can an immature be made Imaam for "Taraawih" prayer or not?
A. An immature lad can not lead prayer of mature believers even funeral prayer or "Taraawih" or "Nail" prayer. However, he can lead prayer of immature lads provided that he is sensible.
Q 8. Who is more deserving of Imaamat (leading prayer)?
A. The most deserving of Imaamat (leading prayer) is the believer who is in the greatest know of the matters,issues of prayers and purification (cleanliness) provided that he has committed such a quantity of the Holy Qur-aan to his memory that he could do "Masnoon Qiraa-at" and also recite correctly. He should not have wrong beliefs and should keep himself away from shameful and all those acts which are repugnant todecency.
Thereafter the one who is most versed in "Qiraa-at" and recites accordingly then he who is most pious i.e. even avoids doubtful things what to think of "Haraam" (unlawful), then the most aged, then the one who possesses best manners and then he who is regular in offering "Tahajjud" (late night supererogatory prayer) and if some persons are equal in these qualities then the one who is the best according to Shari'ah or he who is chosen by the "Jama'at (congregation) should be assigned to lead prayer.
However, if there is an appointed Imaam in any mosque or at any place then this Imaam is most deserving of leading prayer notwithstanding the fact that others are more versed in Islaamic knowledge and "Tajveed" (distinct and excellent recitation of the Qur-aanic verses). The said Imaam must fulfill all the conditions of "Imaamat" otherwise he is not worthy of leading prayer.
Q 9. What about the "Imaamat" of that person with whom people are displeased?
A. It is "Makrooh Tahreemi" for the one to lead prayer with whom people are displeased owing to any "Shar'i" reason. If there is no such reason, he should be made Imaam particularly when he is "Ahaq"(most deserving).
Q10. Can a disabled be Imaam of disabled persons and an "Ummi" (illiterate) of illiterate people or not?
A. A disabled (who is suffering from such a disease that he can not keep up his ablution even for an obligatory prayer) can lead prayer of his likes or more disabled but can not lead prayer of those who are less disabled than him.
In case, the Imaam and Muqtadi have separate disability like one suffers from flatulence whereas the other's nose bleeds then they can not lead prayer of each other.
An "Ummi" (illiterate) who lias no Qur-aanic verse in his memory or has memorised but can not recite correctly i.e. renders the meaning corrupt, can lead prayer of "Ummis" but can not be Imaam of "Qaari" i.e. he who can recite the Holy Qur-aan correctly to the extent of"Fard" that is a small verse. Likewise, if he leads prayer of Ummi and Qaari though the Qaari joined Jama'at after it was established, their prayer will not be valid.
Q11. Who is called "Muqtadi" and how many kinds of it are there?
A. The one who follows Imaam in prayer is called "Muqtadi" and there are four kinds of it:(1)."Mudrik" the one who followed the Imaam (joined prayer) from the first "Rakah" upto "Tashah-hud", (2) "Laa Haq" he who joined prayer in the first Rakah but afterwards his all or certain Rakah(s) was(were) vitiated due to any excuse or without excuse, (3) "Masbooq" the one who joined Imaam (Jama'at) after some Rakahs and remained in the Jama'at till it was over, (4) "Laa Haq Masbooq" he who missed earlier Rakah(s) and joined Imaam in the remaining one(s) but went "Laa Haq" later i.e. the prayer offered by him was vitiated.
Q12. What injunction for "Laa Haq" is there?
A. The injunction for "Laa Haq" is the same as is for "Mudrik" i.e. he will neither do "Qiraa-at" nor "Sajda Sahv" for any shortcoming or forgetfulness in prayer while offering his vitiated prayer. He should not join "Jama'at" again but should offer his vitiated prayer individually after the Jama'at is over and first say the vitiated Rakah (s) and then the remaining one(s). In case, he again joined Jama'at and offered the vitiated Rakah (s) after the Imaam has said "Salaam", the prayer would be in order but he would be sinner.
Q13. What injunction for "Masbooq" is there?
A. The "Masbooq" who missed one or more Rakah(s) should join Jama'at and complete his prayer after the Imaam has said "Salaam". The rules for "Munfarid" (individual) are applicable to him for the purpose of offering missed Rakah (s). He should do Qiraa-at in the missed Rakah and recite "Sana" (if could not recite earlier) and also recite "Ta'awuz" and "Tasmiyah" prior to Qiraa-at. Also observe Sajda Sahv if any shortcoming or forgetfulness is committed during the performance of missed Rakah(s). The observance of the first missed Rakah will not be taken as first in respect of "Tashah-hud" but as second or third or fourth as the case may be. For instance, he joins the last Rakah of the four Rakahs prayer and stands up to complete his prayer after the Jama'at is over, this missed Rakah which he offers now by himself is the first in regard to Qiraa-at but for the purpose of Tashah'hud it is the second. So he should complete this Rakah reciting "Surah Faateha" and any other Surah (Qiraa-at) and sit in "Qa'adah". Thereafter he should stand erect for the next(third) Rakah in which he should recite Surah Fateha and any other Surah and do not sit now in Qa'adah but stand up for the last (fourth) Rakah. In this posture, he should recite only Surah Faatehah and after performing "Rukoo" and "Sujood" he should observe "Qa'ada Akheera"in which he should recite Tashah-hud etc. and finish the prayer saying Salaam. "Masbooq" should not stand up immediately after the first Salaam is said by the Imaam but should wait a bit to ensure that Imaam is not due to observe Sajdah Sahv.
Q14. What injunction for "Masbooq" is there in case he says Salaam with the Imaam?
A. Prayer will not be in order if "Masbooq" says Salaam with the Imaam intentionally considering that he has to say Salaam with the Imaam and if it is done by mistake and that too after the Imaam has said Salaam then the prayer will be in order but he will have to observe Sajdah Sahv on completing his prayer as per the rules. And in case, he does it just with the Imaam (by mistake) then he does not need to do Sajdah Sahv but should stand up to complete his prayer.
Q15. What should "Masbooq" do if the Imaam observes Sajdah Sahv after he has stood up?
A. "Masbooq" who stands up immediately after the Imaam has said first Salaam without waiting a while to know as to whether the Imaam has to do Sajdah Sahv or not, should return to join the Imaam in Sajdah Sahv, provided that he has not completed his individual Rakah and performed Sajdah in the meanwhile, and then complete his remaining prayer as per the rules. What error he has committed in the given situation is not countable. And in case, he does not return to join the Imaam in Sajdah Sahv and complete his remaining prayer, then he should perform Sajdah Sahv at the end of prayer by himself and if he has done Sajdah of his indiviDu'aal Rakah then he should not come back to join the Imaam in Sajdah Sahv because it will nullify the prayer.


Q 1. Is there any particular quantity of Qiraa-at for any prayer?
A. Qiraa-at (recitation from the Holy Qur-aan) of a small verse comprising two or more words fulfills "Fard" (obligatory act) of prayer and recitation of Surah Fateha followed by a small Surah (Qur-aanic chapter) or three small verses or one or two verse(s) which is/ are equal to three small verses in length fulfills "Waajib" (essential act). No more Qiraa-at than this is essential in any prayer whether it is "Fard" or "Nafl" but is "Masnoon"(commendable act).
Q 2. How much Qiraa-at is Masnoon in obligatory prayers?
A. Recitation of "Surah Burooj" (Zodiacal signs) or the likes in "Fajr" and "Zuhr" prayers, smaller than these in "Asr" and '"Ishaa" and small Surah of "Qisaar-e-Mufassal" in "Maghrib" prayer is Sunnat during journey there is peace and one is in no hurry. In case of stay, recitation of "Tiwaal-e-Mufassal" in "Fajr" and "Zuhr", "Ausaat-e-Mufassal" in "Asr" and '"Ishaa" and "Qisaar-e-Mufassal" in "Maghrib" prayer is Sunnat provided the time is not running out. These injunctions are applicable to Imaam and an individual as well.
Q 3. What are "Tiwaal-e-Mufassal", "Ausaat-e-Mufassal" and "Qisaar-e-Mufassal"?
A. Qur-aanic chapters from Surah Hujuraat (the appartment) [part-26] to the last are called "Mufassil" which consists of three portions i.e. Tiwaal-e-Mufassal (from Surah Hujuraat to Surah Burooj), Ausaat-e-Mufassal (from Surah Burooj to Lam Yakunil (Surah Bayinah) and "Qisaar-e-Mufassal" (from Surah Bayinah to the last Surah Naas).
Q 4. What injunction is there about leaving "Qiraa-at Masnoonah" due to any pressing need?
A. One may give up "Qiraa-at Masnoonah" in worry like the prescribed time of prayer is running out or there is fear of enemy or thief etc. and make recitation from the Holy Qur-aan as warranted by the situation irrespective of journey and stay and even leave "Waajibaat" (essential acts). For instance, Fajr time is running out and there is so short time left that he can not recite many verses but only one in each Rakah then he should immediately do it. However, the prayer should be repeated after the Sun has fully risen. Or he has begun Sunnat prayer of Fajr and now he apprehends to miss Jama'at then he should observe only "Waajibaat" and give up "Sana" and "Ta'awuz" and recite "Tasbih" only once in Rukoo and Sujood.
Q 5. Can Qiraa-at Masnoonah be prolonged or not?
A. Qiraa-at Masnoonah can be prolonged provided that it does not cause inconvenience to "Muqtadis" (followers) otherwise not. An Hadees in this context says: the one who leads prayer must care about his "Muqtadis" which include the sick, the weak and the aged (i.e. not to prolong Qiraa-at but be brief) and may prolong Qiraa-at when he offers his individual prayer.
Q 6. Should Qiraa-at be equal in every Rakah or less and more?
A. Prolongation of Qiraa-at in the first Rakah of Fajr prayer in comparison to the second Rakah is "Masnoon" and its quantity is fixed as two-third in first Rakah and one-third in second Rakah. It is better to do more Qiraa-at in the first Rakah of other prayers including Jumu'ah and Eid prayers than the second Rakah and in Sunnat and Nafl prayers equal Surahs be recited in both Rakahs.
Q 7. What about more Qiraa-at in second Rakah than the first Rakah?
A. It is "Makrooh" to prolong Qiraa-at in second Rakah compared to the first Rakah when the verses of both Surahs are equal in number and that the prolongation of Qiraa-at is by three verses. And if the verses of Surahs are small and large then total number of the verses will not be countable but letters and words. It is odious if there is much disparity between the words and letters of the two Surahs though the verses are equal in number, otherwise not. For example, it is odious if "Alam Nashrah" (Surah Al-Inshirah) is recited in the first Rakah and "Lam Yakunil" (Surah Bayinah) in second Rakah though both the Surahs consist of eight verses respectively.
Q 8. What about determination of any particular Surah for any prayer for ever?
A. Determination of Surahs that such and such Surah has to be necessarily recited in so and so prayer is "Makrooh". However, those Surahs whose recitation in prayers is proved by "Ahaadees" should be recited occasionally but not regularly to earn blessings so that others may not get an impression of its being "Waajib".
Q 9. What is Qiraa-at Masnoonah in Sunnats of Fajr prayer and Witr?
A. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) generally recited "Surah Kaafiroon" in the first Rakah of Sunnat of Fajr prayer and "Surah Ikhlaas" in second Rakah and in Witr "Surah 'Alaa" or "Surah Qadr" in the first Rakah, "Surah Kaafiroon" in second and "Surah Ikhlaas" in third Rakah. Similarly, recitation of "Surah 'Alaa" in the first Rakah of Jumu'ah and Eid prayers and "Surah Ghaashiyah" in second Rakah is Sunnat. However, this all is exempt from the rule expounded above.
Q10. What about anti-serial-wise recitation of the Holy Qur-aan?
A. Anti-serial-wise recitation of Qur-aanic Surahs like one recites Surah "Kaafiroon" in the first Rakah and "Alam Tara Kaiefa" (Surah Feil) in second Rakah is "Makrooh". However, if he started reciting any prior Surah in second Rakah forgetfully and afterwards he realised his mistake, then he should complete the Surah even though he recited only a word from it.
Q11. What about repeating only one Surah in prayer?
A. Repetition of one Surah in both Rakahs of prayer is "Makrooh Tanzihi" if there is no disability,helplessness otherwise it is not undesirable. For instance, one started reciting the same Surah in second Rakah by mistake which he had recited in the first Rakah or he could not recall any other Surah or he recited the last Surah i.e. "Naas" in the first Rakah. In such situation he should recite the same Surah in second Rakah too.
However, in Nafl prayer repetition of one Surah in both Rakahs or repetition of the same Surah in one Rakah is lawful without any undesirability.
Q12. What about dropping Surah from in-between?
A. Skipping from any Surah (recited in the first Rakah) to another (for reciting in second Rakah) dropping a small Surah in-between is "Makrooh". However, it is not undesirable if the dropped Surah is larger than the Surah recited in the first Rakah like Surah "Qadr" can be recited after Surah "Teen" as Surah "Ikhlaas" must be recited after Surah "Nasr".
Q13. What are the excellences of the recitation of Glorious Qur-aan?
A. There are myriad of excellences of reciting and teaching the Glorious Qur-aan. Briefly, it may be understood that it is "Kalaam Allah" (Speech,word of Allah) and Islaamic faith and its commands are founded on it. Its recitation and reflection, meditation and research in it leads man to Allah Almighty. This Holy Book is not only a peerless agglomeration of all knowledge and sciences but its each and every word and letter is also a source of Divine blessings and favours.
The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) said to this effect:
1. Recite the Holy Qur-aan because it will intercede for its reciters on the Doomsday.
2. The recitation of a letter of the Qur-aan earns reciter ten goodnesses.
3. Allah Almighty says I bless him with more excellent things who is so occupied with the recitation of Holy Qur-aan and remembering of Me as to spare no time to implore Me for anything than those who ask.
4. The house in which the Qur-aan is recited is so bright for the inmates of the heavens as are the stars for dwellers of the world.
5. Illuminate your houses with "Salaat"(prayer) and Qur-aan.
6. The recitation of the Holy Qur-aan is the best worship done by my Ummah.
7. The best among you is he who learnt and taught the Holy Qur-aan.
Q14: Which important points should one keep in mind while reciting the Holy Qur-aan?
A. The chief objective of reciting the Holy Qur-aan is to read/recite it by considering and understanding its meaning. This illumines the heart. While reciting the verses regarding "Amr-o-Nahi"(commands and prohibitions) one should resolve in the heart to follow the "commands" and beg forgiveness for the sins and faults he committed in the past. On reciting the verse about "mercy" he should express his delight and seek Allah's mercy and on the verse relating to "torment" he should be afraid and seek refuge with Allah. One should read/recite the Holy Qur-aan with all his heart so that he feels moved and tears come from his eyes.
To laugh, trifle or look to any fun or any indecent thing during the recitation of the Holy Qur-aan or to break its recitation for speaking to anyone is "Makrooh". It is also forbidden to adopt the Holy Qur-aan as a source of income or profession.
Q15: Is it lawful or not to recite Holy Qur-aan in walking and lying position?
A. The Holy Qur-aan can be recited (from memory not looking to the text) in lying posture provided the feet are shrivelled (not stretched) and the face is also not covered. Likewise, it can also be recited in walking and working position with the condition that the heart (attention) is not distracted otherwise it is "Makrooh".


"Masah" on socks.
Q 1. Is "Masah" lawful on socks?
A. "Masah" (passing wet hands) on socks during performance of ablution instead of washing feet is lawful. However, it is better for one to wash the feet provided that he considers "Masah" lawful. The lawfulness of doing Masah on socks during ablution is proved by a chain of "Ahaadees". That's why Muslim scholars maintain that he who considers it unlawful is "misguided" and he might go infidel. Once on enquiry about the identity of "Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at" Hadrat Imaam-e-Aazam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) said, keeping in view the prevalent situation in "Kufa" a city of Iraq then, "Tafdeelush Shaiekhaieni wa Hubbul Khatanaieni wa Mas-hul Khuffaien" (considering Hadrat Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Abu Bakr Siddique and Hadrat Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Farooq-e-'Aazam [may Allah be pleased with them] the highest of all companions of the Holy Prophet and loving Hadrat Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Usmaan-e-Ghani and Hadrat Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Ali Murtuzaa (may Allah be pleased with them) and doing "Masah" on socks is the emblem of Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at".
Q 2. What are the conditions of "Masah"?
A. There are some conditions for "Masah" like: (1). Socks should be so long as to cover the ankles easily, (2). be well-stuck to the feet so that one could walk without any difficulty, (3). should either be made of leather or only soles of those be of leather and the remaining of any other thick stuff like canvas etc.(4). socks be worn after having either performed ablution or only having washed the feet and then do ablution, (5).be worn neither in the state of "Janaabat" (seminal pollution) [when bath becomes obligatory] nor should become "Junbi" (sexually polluted) after having worn them, (6) be worn within the prescribed duration, (7) no sock should be torn more than three fingers that means during walk three fingers should not be visible from the torn part. No matter if it is (how much it may be) torn above the ankle.
Q 3. How many "Fard" are there in "Masah"?
A. There are two "Fard" (obligatory acts) in Masah i.e. doing Masah of each sock at least to the size of three small fingers and on the surface of socks (on the portion of insteps).
Q 4. How many "Sunnats" are there in Masah?
A. Doing Masah with (the inner surface of) three (full) fingers and drawing them upto shin with the fingers separated are Sunnat.
Q 5. What is the prescribed duration of Masah?
A. The prescribed duration of Masah for a resident is a day and night and three days and three nights for a traveller. Its time begins from the first "Hadas" (nullification of ablution). For example, one wears socks in the morning and his ablution nullifies for the first time at the time of Zuhr (after-noon prayer) he (if resident) will do Masah next day upto Zuhr time and in case of traveller the time will last upto Zuhr of the
fourth day.
Q 6. What is the accepted manner of Masah?
A. The accepted manner of Masah is to put three fingers of the right hand on the ends of the right toes and three fingers of the left hand on the ends of the left toes and then draw them upwards at least to the length of three fingers. Taking fingers upto shins is Sunnah. The fingers must be wet.
Q 7. Which things render Masah void?
A. The things/acts which nullify ablution also render Masah void. Besides, Masah also gets nullified on completion of the prescribed duration, taking off sock or simple intention of taking off, taking the heel out of sock or the foot (more than half) comes out of sock due to any reason. Similarly, if the water gets into sock wetting the foot more than half the Masah will go void.
Q 8. Can Masah be done on bandaged wound or not?
A. Masah can be done on bandaged wound if the water harms wound or unwinding of bandage harms or there is none to unwind it. In case, the water does not harm then wash the wound. If washing harms, only flow water on it. If it also harms then do Masah on wound and even it can not be done due to fear of harm, do Masah on the bandage. It is better to do Masah on the whole bandage otherwise it must be done on most of the bandage.
Q 9. What injunction is there about any fractured bone of the body which has been plastered or strapped with bamboo splints?
A. The injunction which is meant for the afore-mentioned question No.8 is also applicable to this case.
Q10. Will Masah remain in order or go void if plaster or bandage is unfastened?
A. No fresh Masah is needed if plaster or bandage is unfastened provided it is fastened again. In case of removal of plaster or bandage the wound should be either washed or Masah be done as the case may be.


Q 1. What does "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" mean?
A. A specified meaning of any word taken by "Shari'ah" is called "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" (technical term of Shariah).
Q 2. How many commands of Shariah are there?
A. The commands of Shariah are of two kinds i.e. "Amr" (command, enjoining good) and "Nahi" (prohibition, forbidding evil). The first kind of Shariah's commands is called "Maamooraat" (commanded duties) and the second kind is called "Manhiyaat" or "Mamnoo'aat" (prohibited things). "Amr-o-Nahi" (commands and prohibitions) are eleven. Of these five are "Amr"(commanded duties, acts) i.e. "Fard" [Farz] (obligatory act), "Waajib" (essential act), "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"(emphasised Sunnah), "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" (non-emphasised Sunnah) and "Mustahab" (desirable, commendable act), five ones are "Nahi" (forbidden acts, things) i.e. the worst of these is "Haraam" (unlawful) act and then are "Makrooh Tahreemi" (odious to the extent of being forbidden), "Isaa'at" (bad but less than odious), "Makrooh Tanzihi" (undesirable) and "Khilaaf-e-Ola" (those things, acts which are against Sunnah, decency) and the last (eleventh) one is "Mubah" (neither lawful nor unlawful).
Q 3. How many kinds of obligatory acts are there and what is the definition of each of them?
A. There are two kinds of "Fard" (obligatory acts) i.e. "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" (definite obligatory act) and "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled). "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" is that command of Shariah which is proved by the definite arguement,reason beyond any doubt. Its denier is, according to Hanafi scholars, an absolute infidel. There is "Ijma" (consensus of Muslim scholars) that the one who denies any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" whose obligation is commonly known and manifested by the Islaamic faith, is not only himself an infidel but also he who doubts about the infidelity of the denier.
In short, the one who abandons any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" like Salaat, Rukoo, Sujood (prayer, bowing, prostration), unless permitted by Shariah, is "Faasiq" (disobedient, transgressor), committer of major sin and deserves the torment of hell. "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled) is that command of Shariah which is not proved by any definite argument,reason but it is "obligatory" in view of the consensus of "Mujtahids" (Islamic jurists) based on Shar'i reason to such an extent that one will not be relieved of the obligation unless he fulfills it. The worship which has "Fard-e-'Amali" will be nullified if it is not observed. Its intentional denial is disobedience, transgression and misguidance.
However, a Mujtahid can differ with it on the ground of any Shar'i reason,argument like the differences of "Aa-imah Mujtahideen" (the great four Imaams) that one Imaam considers a thing "Fard" but the other thinks otherwise. For instance, one-fourth "Masah" (passing wet fingers over the head) of the head during ablution is obligatory (Fard) according to Hanafi creed, of one hair is enough for Shaafa'ees and of the entire head as per Maaliki tenets. Every believer (Muqallid) must follow his Imaam's Mazhab in "Fard-e-'Amali". To do against the teachings of one's Imaam, unless permitted by the Shariah, is not lawful.
Q 4. How many kinds of "Fard-e-'Amali" are there?
A. Fard-e-'Amali are of two kinds i.e. "Fard-e-'Ain" (strict obligation) and "Fard-e-Kifaayah" (an obligation which will be fulfilled even if performed by a few Muslims).
Fard-e-'Ain is the duty which ought to be performed by every sane matured Muslim like prayer five times a day.
Fard-e-Kifaayah is a general duty of believers whose performance by only some Muslims will absolve all and if not performed by even a single believer then all will be held responsible for the sin like washing the dead and funeral prayer.
Q 5. How many kinds of "Waajib" are there?
A. "Waajib" are of two kinds like "Fard" i.e. "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi" and "Waajib-e-'Amali". Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi is that injunction of Shariah whose essentiality is proved by "Daleel-e-Zanni" (a tradition reliably transmitted by one or a few people). "Fard-e-'Amali" and "Waajib-e-'Amali" are its two kinds. Waajib-e-'Amali is that injunction of Shariah (or "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi) whose non-fulfilment will not cause believers sin. But its essentiality is stressed. If Waajib-e-'Amali is missed in worship in which its observance was essential then the worship will be defective but fulfilled.
However, leaving out any Waajib intentionally once is minor sin and more than one (repeating it a few times) is major sin.
Q 6. How many kinds of Sunnah are there?
A. There are two kinds of Sunnah i.e. "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Huda" (regular, emphasised practice of the Holy Prophet) and "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Zawaa-id" and also "Mustahab" and "Mandoob" (irregular,non-emphasised but praiseworthy practice).
Q 7. What is "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is the injunction of Shariah which was regularly fulfilled by the Holy Prophet but was occasionally missed so that it might not become "Fard" (obligatory) for his Ummah or that act which has been emphasised upon by the Shariah.
Q 8. What about he who ignores "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. The believer who fulfills Sunnat-e-Muakkadah will earn reward but in case he abandons it without any cogent reason, deserves condemnation. It is sinful to develop an habit of its abandonment which will render him "Faasiq" (disobedient,transgressor) and he will also deserve the torment of hell though its sin is less than that of abandoning "Waajib". Evidence of such man is unacceptable. Some Mulsims scholars maintain that the abandonment of Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is near to "Haraam"(unlawful) act and its "Taarik" (abstainer) might be (God forbid) deprived of the intercession of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is reported to have said: the one who abandons my Sunnah will not enjoy my "Shafaa'at (intercession).
Q9. What is "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" and what injunction is there to this effect?
A. "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" is that injunction of Shariah which has not been emphasised upon but ignoring it is an undesirable act. However, no chastisement has been specified to this effect. Fulfilment of Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah will earn believer reward whereas its habitual abandonment invites Divine anger.
Q10. What is "Mustahab"?
A. "Mustahab" is that injunction of Shariah whose fulfilment is commendable,desirable in Shariah whether it was practised by the Holy Prophet himself or believers were motivated to do it or the Muslim scholars liked it even though it is not proved by "Ahaadees".
It is rewarding to fulfill "Mustahab" but no offence if not done.
Q11. How many kinds of forbidden things,acts are there?
A. "Mamnoo'aat-e-Shariah"(prohibitions of Shariah) are of five kinds i.e. "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" (absolutely unlawful), "Makrooh Tahreemi"(odious to the extent of being forbidden), "Isaa-at" (bad but less than odious), "Makrooh Tanzihi" (undesirable) and "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" (acts,things inimical to Sunnah, decency).
Q12. What is "Haraam-e-Qat'ai"?
A. "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" is that prohibition of Shariah whose unlawfulness and forbidding are proved by the cogent and unquestionable argument,reason. This is the opposite of "Fard" (obligatory act). Its intentional commission amounts to major sin and transgression. It is obligatory on and rewarding for believers to refrain from it to their best.
Q13. What is "Makrooh Tahreemi"?
A. "Makrooh Tahreemi" is that prohibition of Shariah whose forbidding is proved by undeniable reason. This is the opposite of "Waajib"(e-ssential act). It is sinful to commit it as it renders worship defective though its sinfulness is less than that of "Haraam". Repetition of Makrooh Tahreemi is tentamount to major sin.
Q14. Can "Makrooh Tahreemi" be called "Haraam" or not?
A. The difference between "Haraam" and "Makrooh Tahreemi" is based on beliefs like the denier of unlawfulness of "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" is infidel whereas the one who denies the forbidding of "Makrooh Tahreemi" is not infidel. Abstention from Makrooh Tahreemi is essential as it is obligatory on believers to eschew "Haraam" and on this ground Makrooh Tahreemi may be called "Haraam". Muslim scholars sometimes describe "Haraam" as "Makrooh".
Q15. What is "Isaa'at"?
A. "Isaa'at" is that prohibition of Shariah whose forbidding is not so strong as it is for "Haraam" and "Makrooh Tahreemi" but its commission is bad. The one who occasionally commits it deserves Divine anger and in case of being habitual he is culpable for torment. "Isaa'at" is the opposite of Sunnat-e-Muakkadah".
Q16. What is "Makrooh Tanzihi"?
A. "Makrooh Tanzihi" is that prohibition of Shariah whose commission is considered undersirable in Shariah. However, its undesirability is not to the extent of "Wa'eed"(warning of dire consequences). The one who avoids it earns goodness and reward and in case of commission he is liable to neither torment nor Divine anger.
"Makrooh Tanzihi" is the opposite of Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah".
Q17. What is "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa"?
A. "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" is that prohibition of Shariah whose commission is against decency. It is better for believer to avoid it but he would not be held accountable if committed. Its avoidance is praise-worthy. "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" is the opposite of "Mustahab".
Q18. What is "Mubaah"?
A. "Mubaah" is that thing,act for which there is neither any command nor prohibition that is neither permitted nor forbidden. Therefore, its commission and non-commission brings the committer no reward and no torment like taking delicious food and fine cloths provided it is not done for pomp and show.
Q19. Does any "Mubaah" act,affair need any Shar'i reason or not?
A. Those who say or claim that such and such act,affair is lawful or "Mubaah" need no Shar'i argument,reason for its lawfulness in the absence of any Shar'i reason on its prohibition and thus it is itself a cogent proof of its lawfulness. Had such act,affair been wrong or unlawful the Shariah would have definitely admonished and commanded to abstain from it.
Q20. Can any "Mubaah" act,affair be called "Haraam" or "Bid'at" as a precausionary measure or not?
A. The Holy Qur-aan has been sent down and Islaam perfected. No new command or prohibition is to come to us. So pardone has been determined for all those acts, affairs about which no prohibition is proved by the Shariah. It is, indeed, very kind of Allah Almighty and His Messenger who have left such things to us. The Holy Prophet has himself said that whatever Allah Almighty has declared "lawful" in His holy book (Qur-aan) is lawful for you and whatever has been declared unlawful is unlawful for you and that thing is also permitted for which there is no command or prohibition.
Allah Almighty Himself says in the Glorious Qur-aan: and whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take (i.e. follow that) and whatsoever he forbids you, refrain from that.
In view of these saying of the Holy Prophet and command of Allah Almighty it becomes clear that an act,affair about which there is neither any command nor prohibition, is neither "Waajib"(essential) nor a sin but "Mubaah"(forgiven act). The one who describes any act,affair as forbidden, unlawful or odious should either prove its badness or that Shariah (Qur-aan-o-Hadees) has forbidden it or there is consensus of Muslim scholars on its unlawfulness.
Calling or declaring any act,affair "Haraam" or "Makrooh" until and unless proved by the Shariah is no wisdom as it imposes unnecessary limitations on believers.
Besides, such measure is also tentamount to creating a new "Shariah". Every believer must avoid such things.
Those "Mubaah" acts,affairs which are done with the spirit of love and reverence like "Mehfil-e-Meelaad" (commemoration of the Holy Prophet's birth), recitation of "Salaat-o-Salaam"(invocation of Allah's blessings & peace on the Holy Prophet) in standing position are desirous and highly rewarding ones. That's why "Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at" is in agreement and has consensus on arranging and holding "Mehfil-e-Meelaad" programmes.
Q21. Can "Sunnat" be called "Nafl" or not?
A. "Nafl" (pl.Nawaafil) is that permissible and lawful act which is neither "Fard"(obligatory) nor "Waajib" (essential). So it is a common (lawful) word which is also applicable to "Sunnat"(pl.Sunan). Therefore, Muslim jurists have also explained about and commented on "Sunan"(Prophet's practices, sayings) in their books of Islaamic jurisprudence. However, if there is any particular thing about "Sunan", those are explained separately.
Q22. How many Shar'i reasons,sources are there by which these Shar'i commands are proved?
A. There are four Shar'i reasons,sources i.e. the Holy Qur-aan, Ahaadees, Ijma-e-Ummah and Qiyaas.
Q23. What does "Qiyaas" mean?
A. Shar'i meaning of Qiyaas is to refer any "Furoo'i Masalah" (subsidiary issue,matter) to the main issue,matter in respect of 'Illat (cause,ground) and "Hukm" (command). For instance, an intricate (subsidiary) issue,matter crops up whose lawfulness or unlawfulness is not directly proved by "Qur-aan-o-Hadees". In such situation, similar issues,matters available in "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" will be consulted and researched and 'Illat and "Hukm" of whichever of them are found in agreement with it the "command" of the said main issue,matter will be applicable to the subsidiary issue,matter in question. This referral and analogical process is called "Qiyaas". Qiyaas is, in fact, a manifestation of Shari'ah which unveils hitherto covered commands of Qur-aan-o-Hadees.
No Tom, Dick or Harry can make Qiyaas. It is an exclusive job of Mujtahid (the Muslim jurist who exercises his independent opinion). Qiyaas is proved by Holy Qur-aan, Holy Prophet and words and deeds of the Prophet's companions. Therefore, its outright rejection is infidelity.


Q 1. What does "Taqleed" mean?
A. "Taqleed", according to Shari'ah, means to take somebody's words and deeds for oneself as "argument" or "reason" considering him one of those who are "authority" on code of Islaam and Islaamic jurisprudence without referring to Shari'ah as we follow the suit of Hadrat Imaam Azam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) in "Masaa-il-e-Shari'ah" (religious affairs and issues) without any consideration whether he has explained or resolved such and such issue according to the Holy Qur-aan or Sunnah or "Ijma-e-Ummah"(consensus of Muslim scholars) or by his own judgement. "Taqleed" (conformation) is "Waajib" (essential). The believer who follows any Imaam's suit is called "Muqallid" (conformist,follower) as we are "Muqallid" of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa(may Allah be pleased with him).
Q 2. In which matters is "Taqleed" to be done?
A. There are three kinds of religious matters of Islaam: (1).Beliefs:These must be understood well and firmly committed to the heart. Beliefs are the principles of Islaamic faith. Therefore, these are immune from amendment and revocation and even omission or addition. (2).The clear-cut "commands" of the Holy Qur-aan and Sunnah like obligatory prayers five times a day, fasts (of the holy month) of Ramadaan, Hajj, Zakaat (poor-due) etc. "Ijtehaad" (independent interpretation of Islaamic matters) or "Qiyaas" (opinion, judgement) of any "Mujtahid"(the jurist who exercises his independent opinion) has nothing to do with the "commands". (3).Those commands which have been derived from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" through "Ijtehaad" (consensus). In such fundamental beliefs "Taqleed" is not to be done. Likewise the express "commands" of the Holy Qur-aan and Holy Prophet are exempt from "Taqleed". Our conformation to (following the suit of) Imaam Azam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) in religious affairs and issues is not on the ground that he has enjoined to do so but because "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" have expressly commanded in these respects. The third kind of religious matters is those which have been derived from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijma-e-Ummah" (consensus of Muslim scholars). "Taqleed" in such affairs is binding upon a "Ghair-Mujtahid" (non-jurist). As against this, it is forbidden for a "Mujtahid".
Q 3. Who is "Mujtahid"?
A. "Mujtahid" is the mature and sane (male) Muslim who possesses extra-ordinary intellect and wisdom to fathom and grasp the niceties, subtelities and essence of the Qur-aanic chapters and verses in the true sense of their divine meaning. He ought to have mastery of Arabic grammer and syntax and eloquence in the language; be knowledgeable about the annulling and annulled injunctions (of the Holy Qur-aan); have the minutest knowledge of all Qur-aanic verses and sayings of the Holy Prophet concerning "commands" and well-versed in infering solution of all religious affairs and issues from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" knowing well their "source" and "argument" that such-and-such matter or issue has been resolved in the light of so and so Qur-aanic verse or Hadees. Besides, he must be a man of cultivated and pleasant genious and sagacity.
Q 4. What is "Fiqah" and who is "Faqih"?
A. "Aa-imah Mujtahideen"(Muslim scholars,theologians) collected "Massa-il-e-Shari'ah" (assorted Islaamic matters, issues) and "Commands of Shari'ah" which were scattered here and there throughout the Holy Qur-aan and "Ahaadees" (Prophetic sayings) and those affairs,issues which were arrived at through "Ijma-e-Ummah" (consensus of Muslim scholars) and "Qiyaas" (opinionjudgement) and compiled them topic-and-chapter-wise for the facilitation of believers. This voluminous collection is called "Fiqah" (Islaamic jurisprudence). To follow these "Masaa-il-e-Shari'ah" is, in fact, to follow "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijmaa-e-Ummah". Those learned ones who have expertise in the knowledge of "Fiqah" are called "Faqih" pi. "Fuqaha" (Islamic jurists).
Q 5. What is "Mazhab"?
A. A constitution of Islamic laws and principles or articles of faith of any "Imaam Mujtahid" (the Muslim leader who is authority on "code of Islaam") which he has inferred from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijmaa-e-Ummah" in respect of "Furoo'ee Masaa-il" (non-essentials, subsidiary affairs,issues) is called "Mazhab" (creed). "Deen-e-Islaam" (Islamic religion) is the basis and "Mazhab" is its branch.
Q 6. How many "Mazhabs" are found at present in the Muslim world?
A. According to a saying of the Holy Prophet "Sawaad-e-Azam" (vast majority of Muslims following Sunnah) is the only sect which would find good (salvation) in this world and the next world. This biggest sect of the believers is "Naaji"(blessed one,deserving paradise) i.e. "Ahle-Sunnat-wa-Jama'at" comprising all four "Mazhabs" (Hanfi, Maaliki, Shaafa'i and Hanbli). It has been a practice of the whole Muslim Ummah (community of the Holy Prophet) since the time of Taba' Taaba'een (successors to companions' successors) until now that he who is not himself a "Mujtahid" conforms to (follow the suit of) any "Mujtahid". That's why, the prominent "Ulama", "Fuzala", "Mohaddiseen" and "Mufassireen" (Muslim scholars, the doctors well-versed in traditions and experts in Qur-aanic exegises) conformed to any of the four Imaams putting aside their valuable reseaches and became, ipso facto, "Muqallid" (conformists, followers).
Hadrat Imaam Bukhari, Imaam Muslim (may Allah shower His mercy on them) and other scholars, doctors of traditions,narratives whose "Ahaadees" books are considered to be the most authentic in the Muslim world did "Taqleed" (conformed to) throughout their lives and so did the great saints like Hadrat Ghous-e-Azam and Hadrat Khowaja Gharib Nawaz (may Allah have mercy on them). In brief, none but only the said four Imaams have to be conformed to, even though his "beliefs" be in line with any Qur-aanic verse, saying of the Holy Prophet or sayings and actions of the Prophet's companions. The one who is out of the fold of any of the four "Mazhab" is a misguided, misguider, disbelieving and heretic one because he makes his own way in the religion unlike all other Muslims. An "Hadees" in this context says: the believer who separated himself from the major sect of Muslims has, indeed, strayed for hell.
Q 7. What about he who claims to follow all the four "Mazhabs"?
A. The one who does not follow the suit of (conform to) any of the four Imaams but claims to be a follower of all the four, actually tries to hoodwink and inveigle people into unruliness. Acting upon the directives of all four "Mazhabs" means that these "Mazhabs" of the great leaders of Ahle Sunnat have some un-Islamic things and thus one Mazhab can not be followed but instead the lawful things of all "Mazhabs" be chosen and followed discarding the unlawful ones. Such an absurd notion which brings disgrace and disrepute to all Muslim leaders and scholars who not only did "Taqleed" themselves of only one of the four Imaams throughout their lives but also enjoined their followers to do the same makes the claiment of this nonsense himself a misguided and disbeliever and he is one of those who are out of the Islaamic-fold. Following all the four "Mazhabs" simultaneously is like: there are four straight ways leading to a set goal and people adopt any of them to reach the destination but a man shouts and advises them not to adopt only one way but take all the four to attain to the goal. Nobody heeds to him and continue their journey to the destination having chosen only one from them. Being frustrated, he himself goes ahead with his silly plan. He takes one way and abandones it half-way adopting the other. He leaves it too incomplete and rushes to the third one and then to the last one but finishes up with futility. (An English maxim to this effect: "a rolling stone gathers no moss"). Is this man a sensible or a lunatic? Judge yourself. In short, it is obligatory on every Muslim to remain adhered to the "Mazhab" of his Imaam. In case of dessertion from his "Mazhab" no excuse will be accepted in the Divine Court and he will be damned. Believers must hold all the four "Imaams" in high esteem and consider them "Ahle Sunnat". Their followers and conformists are also on the righteous path.
No "Mazhab" of any "Imaam Mujtahid" can be termed as "Bid'at"(heresy). The one who says it "Bid'at" is, according to Muslim scholars, himself a heretic, disbeliever and renders himself culpable for hell.
Q 8. Who are "Ashaa'irah" and "Maaturidiyah" in Ahle Sunnat?
A. We have already told you that nobody's "Taqleed" in fundamental beliefs is lawful except in subsidiary affairs,issues. Ahle Sunnat are divided in two groups on some subsidiary affairs,issues i.e. "Maaturidiyah" who conform to Hadrat Imaam Abu Mansoor Maaturidi (may Allah shower His mercy on him) and "Ashaa'irah" who follow Hadrat Imaam Shaikh Abul Hasan Ash'ari (may Allah shower His mercy on him). Both these Imaams are Ahle Sunnat and on the righteous path. Their difference on subsidiary affairs, issues is like that of "Hanafi" and "Shaafa'i". They do not term each other as misguided or disbelieving one even "Faasiq-o-Faajir" (disobedient, transgressor).
Q 9. Which type of "Taqleed" has been described 'bad' in Qur-aan-o-Hadees?
A. Some people follow such rites of their forefathers concerning marriage and death matters which are repugnant to "Shari'ah and insist on observing them even though those are un-Islaamic. Such "Taqleed" has been denounced by "Qur-aan-o-Hadees". Describing "Taqleed-e-Aa-imah" (conformation to the great Imaams) unlawful in the light of these Qur-aanic verses and Prophetic sayings is nothing but disbelief. No believer can dare to give up Qur-aan-o-Hadees and follow Imaam's words and deeds over-riding Allah and His Prophet's commands considering that his salvation lies in it.
All believers act upon the commands and directives of Qur-aan-o-Hadees as researched and interpreted by these great Imaams and that's why they are called "Muqallid".
Q10. What are the names and titles of the Imaams of four Mazhabs?
A. The four Imaams are:
1. Hadrat Imaam-e-A'zam Nu'maan bin Saabit (may Allah be pleased with him): His title is Abu Hanifah. He was born in Kufa (city) in 80 A.H. He is the founder of "Fiqah" viz: Hanafi. His "Ijtehaadi Masaa-il" (those affairs, issues which he derived from Qur-aan-o-Hadees through his independent judgement, opinion) are spread and being followed in the Muslim world particularly in great Islaamic states for about 1200 years as his "Mazhab" abounds with the basics and dynamics of efficient governance. A majority of believers in the Muslim world is his follower. No Aa-imah (the four great Imaams) but he has the distinction of seeing and enjoying the company of the Holy Prophet's companions.
He died in Baghdad Sharif in 150 A.H. His popularity and the esteem in which he was held can be gauged from the fact that his first funeral prayer was attended by about fifty thousands people and since people kept coming in, therefore his funeral prayer was held six times consecutively to facilitate his disciples and votaries to attend it.
His shrine is in Baghdad and is one of the sacred and prominent places situated there.
Hadrat Imaam Bukhari(may Allah have mercy on him) is one of those great Islamic scholars, jurists and traditionists who were his (Abu Hanifa's) students' students.
His "Muqallids" (followers, conformists) are called "Hanafi".
2. Hadrat Imaam Muhammad bin Idrees Shaafa'I (may Allah be pleased with him): His title is Shaafa'i. The year of the death of Hadrat Imaam Abu Hanifa and the year of the birth of Imaam Shaafa'i is the same i.e. 150 A.H. He was born in Asqalaan. His title is also Abu Abdullah and he is Haashmi-Qureshi-Muttalabi by lineage. He was matchless in Islaamic jurisprudence and the knowledge of Qur-aan-o-Hadees besides other sectors of learning. He was also peerless in "Zuhd-o-Taqva" (piety and continence), generosity and magnanimity.
He died at the age of 54 in 204 A.H. His shrine is in Qaraana (Egypt). His "Muqallids" are called "Shaafa'i".
3. Hadrat Imaam Maalik bin Anas (may Allah be pleased with him): He was born in holy Madinah in 95 A.H. His "Kuniyah" (surname) is Abu Abdullah. All Muslim scholars of his time acknowledged him as their "Imaam". Hadrat Imaam Shaafa'i is one of his prominent students. Numerous great Muslim scholars and jurists gained a lot from his fountain of knowledge.
He had unbounded love for the Holy Prophet and due to this attachment he spent his whole life in sacred Madinah.
He died at the age of 84 in holy Madinah in 179 A.H. and his shrine is also there. His "Muqallids" are called "Maaliki".
4. Hadrat Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah be pleased with him): He was born in Baghdad Sharif in 164 A.H. and was also brought up there.
His greatness, Islaamic knowledge and audacity in braving trials and torture for Islaam are no secret. During the time of Caliph Maamoonur Rasheed a mischievous issue of whether the Holy Qur-aan is creation of Allah or His Kalaam (speech, word) was stirred. Imaam Hanbal stood like a rock against the mischief facing horrendous troubles and torture and did not allow any harm to come to Islaam. He died at the age of 77 in Baghdad in 241 A.H. His "Muqallids" are called "Hanbli".

Islam >> ABOUT "WITR"

iQ 1: Is "Witr" prayer "Waajib" or Sunnat?
A. "Witr" is "Waajib". The Prophetic sayings lay great stress on offering "Witr" prayer. Once the Holy Prophet reiterated thrice: "Witr is the truth. He is not from us who does not offer Witr prayer." It is very sinful not to offer Witr prayer deliberately and without any valid reason and it has to be essentially offered if missed intentionally or unintentionally. No matter how long time has elapsed.
Q 2: How many Rak'ahs are there in Witr prayer and how to be offered?
A. Witr prayer consists of three Rak'ahs and "Qa'ada Ulaa" is Waajib in it. Likewise, Surah Faatehah has to be followed by any other Surah in every Rak'ah. The method of offering Witr prayer is that one should stand up from "Qa'adah Ulaa" after having recited "Tashah-hud" (neither recite Durood Shareef nor Salaam) for the third Rak'ah in which he should, after having done "Qiraa-at" lift his hands upto the ears saying Allah-o-Akbar (as is done in Takbir-e- Tahreemah) and then fold them below the navel and recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot in soft voice. This rule is equally applicable to all i.e. Imaam, Muqtadi and individual. Recitation of Du'aa-e-Qunoot in Witr prayer is Waajib.
Q 3: What should one do who has not committed Du'aa-e-Qunoot to memory?
A. The one who has not committed Du'aa-e-Qunoot to his memory or he can not recite it, should recite: "Allahumma Rabbanaa Aatenaa Fidduniyaa Hasanata-oon wa Fil Aakherati Hasanata-oon wa Qinaa 'Azaaban Naar" or recite: "Allaa-hummagh Firlee" three times. If one can not recite even this then he should recite at least "Yaa Rabbu" thrice.
Q 4: Should "Masbooq" recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot with the Imaam or later?
A. "Masbooq: (the one who joins Jama'at after some Rak'ahs) should recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot with the Imaam (not later) and if he joined Jama'at (Imaam) in Rukoo of third Rak'ah then he is not required to recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot in the remaining prayer which he has to complete because having found Rukoo of third Rak'ah he has actually found third Rak'ah and thus Du'aa-e-Qunoot too. So no need to recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot again.
Q 5: What should a Muqtadi do if he has not yet completed Du'aa-e-Qunoot and Imaam has gone into Rukoo?
A. If Muqtadi has not yet completed Du'aa-e-Qunoot and Imaam has gone into Rukoo then he should follow the Imaam (i.e. observe Rukoo) giving up Du'aa-e-Qunoot.