Friday, December 9, 2011




Shaykh Badrud-Deen
al-Ghazzee (d.984H) [1]

The Shaykh -
rahimahullaah - said, [2]

Know O pious
brother - may Allaah make our affairs good - that the manners of
companionship and good relationships are of various types, of which
I will explain, such as will show the person of intellect the manners
of the Believers and the Pious; and come to know that Allaah the
Most Perfect, the Most High has made them a mercy and helpers towards
each other, which is why the Messenger of Allaah (saws) said, ‘‘The
example of the Believers, in their mutual love and mercy is like
the example of a body, if one part feels pain, then all of the body
suffers in sleeplessness and fever.’’ [3]

And he (saws)
said, ‘‘The Believer to the Believer is like a solid building, one
part supporting the other.’’ [4] The Prophet (saws) also said, ‘‘The
souls are arrayed armies, so those who knew each one another before,
will be friendly…’’ [5] So if Allaah intends good for His servants,
He grants them companionship of the people of the Sunnah, righteousness
and adherence to the Religion; and keeps him free from the companionship
of the people of innovations. The Prophet (saws) said, “A person
is upon the religion of his friend, so let every one of you look
to whom he keeps as a friend.’’ [6]

About a person,
do not ask, but ask about his companion; Since every companion follows
his friends.’

From the manners
of companionship:


Good manners
with the brothers, peers and companions, following the Messenger
of Allaah (saws) as he said, when it was said to him, ‘What is the
best of what a person is given?’ So he replied, ‘‘Good manners.’’


From the manners
of companionship is behaving well regarding the faults that he sees
of his companions, since Ibn Maazin said, ‘The Believer seeks excuses
for his brothers, whilst the hypocrite seeks out their faults.’
And Hamdoon al-Qassaar said, ‘If one of your brothers commits an
error, then seek ninety excuses for him, and if not, then you are
the blameworthy one.’


To keep companionship
with one whose Religion you trust and who is trustworthy, both inwardly
and outwardly. Allaah the - Most High - says, “You will not find
anyone who believes in Allaah and the Last Day, making friendship
with those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger, even though they
were their fathers, sons, brothers or their relatives. For such
He has written eemaan (faith) in their hearts, and strengthened
them with a spirit (proofs, light and guidance) from Himself. And
We will admit them into gardens underneath which rivers flow, to
dwell therein forever. Allaah is pleased with them, and they are
pleased with Him. They are the Party of Allaah, indeed it is the
Party of Allaah that will be successful.’’ [Sooratul-Mujaadilah


For the Shaykhs
and elders: with respect to service and to carry out their needs.
For those of the same peer group and those of the ‘middle rank’:
with sincere advice, giving what you have and being prepared to
carry out their wishes. For the students and younger ones: by guidance,
teaching of manners, carrying out what knowledge demands, guidance
to the manners of the Sunnah, rulings concerning the matters of
the heart, and to guide them to develop good manners.


From the manners
of companionship is overlooking mistakes of the brothers and not
reprimanding them. So al-Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) said, ‘Chivalry
is to overlook the mistakes of the brothers.’ Ibnul-A’raabee (d.231H)
said, ‘Forgetting the harms caused by the brothers, causes you love
of them to persist.’ So it is binding upon the Believer, that he
avoids seekers of this world, since they will bring him down to
the level of seeking it, and this will distance him from his salvation
and it will distance him from remaining alert and being aware of
it. Rather, he must strive hard in attaining the companionship of
the good and the seekers of the Hereafter. Therefore, Dhun-Noon
(d.245H) said to the one whom he advised, ‘Accompany the one whom
you will be safe from outwardly, and whom - when you see him - it
helps you in doing good and reminds you of your Lord.’


And from them
is: not to differ much with the brothers, but continue agreeing
with the brothers in those things allowed by knowledge and the Sharee’ah.
Aboo ’Uthmaan said, ‘Agreeing with the brothers is better than showing
compassion for them.’


That he does
not envy the signs of Allaah’s bounty upon them. Rather, he should
be happy for that and praise Allaah for it, just as he would praise
Allaah if it were seen upon him. Allaah - the Most High - censures
the envious one, ‘‘Or do they envy men for what Allaah has given
them from His bounty.’’ [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:94]

The Prophet
(saws) said, ‘‘Do not envy one another.’’ [8]


That he has
hayaa‘ (modesty and shame) at all times, as he (saws) said, ‘‘Faith
(eemaan) has sixty or seventy odd branches, the most excellent of
them is witnessing that none has the right to be worshipped besides
Allaah, and the lowest branch is removing something harmful from
the road, and hayaa‘ is from eemaan.’’ [9] (saws) also said, ‘‘Hayaa‘
is from eemaan, and eemaan is from Paradise. Speaking obscenely
is from coarseness and coarseness is from the Fire.’’ [10]


To accompany
the one who he has a feeling of respect for, so that this prevents
from acting contrary to the Sharee’ah. ’Alee (raa) said, ‘‘Enliven
your feeling of hayaa‘ (shame), by sitting before those whom you
feel shame. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) - rahimahullaah - said, ‘‘I
have not been led into calamity except by accompanying those before
whom I do not feel shame.’’


To have cheerfulness
of the face, kindness of the tongue, largeness of the heart, outspreading
the hands, withholding anger, leaving off pride, keeping people’s
honor in mind and showing happiness at their companionship and brotherhood.


From good companionship
is that he does not accompany except a Scholar, of a person who
is mild, intelligent and has knowledge. Dhun-Noon - rahimahullaah
- said, ‘Allaah has not disrobed any one of His servants or a robe
better than intellect, and has not adorned him with a necklace better
than knowledge, nor adorned him with anything better than mildness.
And the completeness of that is taqwaa (fear of Allaah).’


Having a clean
heart with regards to the brothers and advising them, as Allaah
- the Most High - said, “Except he who comes to Allaah with a clean
heart.’’ [Sooratush-Shu’araa 26:89]

Saree as-Saqatee
(d.257H) - rahimahullaah - said, ‘One of the best manners of righteousness
is having a good heart as regards the brothers and to give them
sincere advice.’


Since this is
from hypocrisy, and he (saws) said, ‘‘The signs of the hypocrite
are three: When he speaks he lies, when he makes a promise he breaks
it and when he is entrusted he acts deceptively.’’ [11] Sufyaan
ath-Thawree (d.164H) - rahimahullaah - said, ‘‘Do not make a promise
to your brother and then break it, so that love turns to hate.’


[1] He is the
muftee and faqeeh, Abul-Barakaat Badrud-Deen al-Ghazzee. For his
biography, refer to Shadharaatudh-Dhahab (8/403-406) of Ibnul-’Imaad
and al-A’laam (7/59) of az-Ziriklee.

[2] From Aadaabul-’Ishrah
wa Dhikrus-Suhbah wal-Ukhuwwah (p. 9-20) with the checking and authentication
of hadeeth based upon that of Shaykh ’Alee Hasan al-Halabee and
also Shaykh Mashhoor Hasan Salmaan.

[3] Related
by al-Bukhaaree (no. 6011) and Muslim (no. 2586), from an-Nu’maan
Ibn Basheer (raa).

[4] Related
by al-Bukhaaree (no. 481) and Muslim (no. 2585), from Aboo Moosaa
al-Ash’aree (raa).

[5] Saheeh:
Related by al-Bukhaaree (6/369) with ta’leeq (suspension), from
’Aa‘ishah (raa). It was connected by Aboo Ya’laa in al-Musnad (no.
4381) with an isnaad whose narrators are from as-Saheeh - as occurs
in al-Majma’ (8/88) of al-Haythamee.

[6] Hasan: Related
by Ahmad (2/303), Aboo Daawood (no. 4812) and at-Tirmidhee (no.
2484), from Aboo Hurayrah (raa). It was authenticated by Imaam an-Nawawee
in Riyaadus-Saaliheen (no. 174).

[7] Saheeh:
Related by Wakee’ in az-Zuhd (no. 423), Ibn Hibbaan (1/427) and
at-Tabaraanee in al-Kabeer (1/147), from Usaamah Ibn Shareek (raa).
It was authenticated by al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee in Takhreejul-Ihyaa‘

[8] Related
by al-Bukhaaree (10/484) and Muslim (no. 2564), from Aboo Hurayrah

[9] Related
by al-Bukhaaree (1/44) and Muslim (1/46)

[10] Saheeh:
Related by Ahmad (2/501) and at-Tirmidhee (no. 2077) with a saheeh
isnaad, from Aboo Hurayrah (raa).

[11] Related
by al-Bukhaaree (5/289) and Muslim (1/76)




Author Unknown

Sisters in Islam:
she loves them as sisters for the sake of Allah (SWT)

The way in which
the true Muslim woman relates to her friends and sister in Islam
is different from the way in which other women conduct their social
affairs. Her relationship with her sisters is based on ta'akhi (brotherhood
or sisterhood) for the sake of Allah (SWT).

This love for
the sake of Allah (SWT) is the highest bond that may exist between
one human being and another, whether man or woman. It is the bond
of faith in Allah (SWT) which Allah (SWT) established between all
believers when He said: (The Believers are but a single brotherhood
. . .) (Qur'an 49:10)

The brotherhood
of faith is the strongest of bonds between hearts and minds. It
comes as no surprise to see that Muslim sisters enjoy a strong,
enduring relationship that is based on love for the sake of Allah
(SWT), which is the noblest and purest form of love between human
beings. This is a love which is untainted by any worldly interest
or ulterior motive.

It is the love
in which Muslim men and women find the sweetness of faith: "There
are three things that whoever attains them will find the sweetness
of faith: if Allah (SWT) and His Messenger are dearer to him than
anyone or anything else; if he loves a person solely for the sake
of Allah (SWT); and if he would hate to return to kufr after Allah
(SWT) has rescued him from it, as much as he would hate to be thrown
into the Fire."1

The status of
two who love one another for the sake of Allah (SWT)

Many hadith
describe the status of two people who love another for the sake
of Allah (SWT), whether they are men or women, and describe the
high position in Paradise which Allah (SWT) has prepared for them
and the great honour which He will bestow upon them on the Day when
mankind is resurrected to meet the Lord of the Worlds.

It is sufficient
honor for those who love one another for the sake of (SWT), men
and women alike, to know that their almighty Lord will take care
of them on the Day of Judgement and will say: "Where are those
who loved one another for My glory? Today I will shade them in My
shade on the Day when there is no shade but Mine."2 Such is
the magnificent honor and tremendous reward that will be bestowed
upon those who truly loved one another for the sake of Allah (SWT),
on that awesome Day.

Love for the
sake of Allah (SWT), and not for the sake of anything else in life,
is very difficult, and none can attain it except the one who is
pure of heart, for whom this world and all its pleasures are as
nothing in comparison with the pleasure of Allah (SWT). It is not
surprising that Allah (SWT) should give them a status and blessing
which is commensurate with their position in this world, above whose
concerns they have risen. We see proof of this in the hadith of
Mu`adh, who said that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Allah (SWT)
said: `Those who love one another for My glory will have minbars
of light, and the Prophets and martyrs will wish that they had the

Allah (SWT)
bestows upon those who love one another for His sake a gift which
is even greater than this status and blessing: that is His precious
love which is very difficult to attain. This is proven by the hadith
of Abu Hurayrah (RAA) in which the Prophet (PBUH) said: "A
man went to visit a brother of his in another village. Allah (SWT)
sent an angel to wait for him on the road. When the man came along,
the angel asked him, `Where are you headed?' He said, `I am going
to visit a brother of mine who lives in this village.' The angel
asked, `Have you done him any favor (for which you are now seeking
repayment)?' He said, `No, I just love him for the sake of Allah
(SWT).' The angel told him, `I am a messenger to you from Allah
(SWT), sent to tell you that He loves you as you love your brother
for His sake.'"4

What a great
love, that raises a person to a position where Allah (SWT) loves
him and is pleased with him! The Prophet (PBUH) understood the impact
of this strong, pure love in building societies and nations, so
he never let any occasion pass without advocating this love and
commanding the Muslims to announce their love for one another, in
order to open hearts and spread love and purity among the ranks
of the ummah.

Anas (RAA) said
that a man was with the Prophet (PBUH), when another man passed
by. The first man said, "O Messenger of Allah (SWT), indeed
I truly love this man." The Prophet (PBUH) asked him, "Have
you let him know that?" He said, "No." The Prophet
(PBUH) said, "Tell him." He caught up with him and told
him, "Truly I love you for the sake of Allah (SWT)," and
the man said, "May Allah (SWT) love you who loves me for His

The Prophet
(PBUH) used to do the same thing himself, teaching the Muslims how
to build a society based on pure love and brotherhood. One day he
took Mu`adh by the hand and said, "O Mu`adh, by Allah (SWT)
I love you, so I advise you, O Mu`adh, never forget to recite, after
every prayer, `O Allah (SWT), help me to remember You and to give
thanks toYou and to worship You properly (Allahumma, a`inni `ala
dhikrika wa shukrika wa husni `abadatika).'"6

Mu`adh began
to spread this pure love among the Muslims throughout the Muslim
lands, telling them what he had learned from the Prophet (PBUH)
about the great reward that Allah (SWT) had prepared for those who
loved one another for His sake, and about His great love for them.
In al-Muwatta', Imam Malik gives a report with a sahih isnad from
Abu Idris al-Khulani who said: “I entered the mosque of Damascus,
where I saw a young man who had a bright smile, and I saw the people
gathered around him. When they disagreed on some matter, they referred
it to him, and accepted his opinion. I asked who he was, and they
told me, `This is Mu`adh ibn Jabal (RAA).' Early the next day, I
went to the mosque but I found that he had arrived even earlier
than I. He was praying, so I waited until he had finished, then
I approached him from in front, greeted him and said, `By Allah
(SWT), I love you.' He asked, `For the sake of Allah (SWT)?' I said,
`For the sake of Allah (SWT).' He repeated his question, `For the
sake of Allah (SWT)?' And I said, `For the sake of Allah (SWT).'
So he took hold of my collar, pulled me towards him and said, `I
have good news for you. I heard the Prophet (PBUH) say: "Allah
(SWT) says: "My love is granted to those who love one another
for My sake, who visit one another for My sake, and who spend on
one another for My sake.'"'"7 The effect of love for the
sake of Allah (SWT) on the life of Muslim men and women.

Islam came to
build an ideal society based on sincere love and brotherhood, so
it had to plant the seeds of love in the hearts of the individuals
of which society is composed. Therefore it made this love among
believing men and among believing women one of the conditions of
faith that will grant admittance to Paradise. This may be seen in
the hadith narrated by Imam Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (RAA) in which
the Prophet (PBUH) said: "By the One in Whose hand in my soul,
you will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not
believe until you love one another. Shall I not tell you of something
that if you do it, you will love one another? Spread salam amongst

The Prophet
(PBUH), with his brilliant and deep insight, understood that nothing
could eliminate hatred, jealousy and rivalry from people's hearts
but true brotherhood, based on sincere love, friendship and mutual
advice, and free of feuds, hatred, insincerity and envy. The way
to achieve this is through spreading salam, so that hearts may be
opened to sincere love and friendship. So the Prophet (PBUH) frequently
repeated this teaching to his Sahabah, aiming to sow the seed of
love in their hearts and nurture them until they bore fruits of
that great love that Islam wants for the Muslims, men and women

With this sincere
love, the Prophet (PBUH) built the first generation of Muslims,
who formed the solid foundation on which the great structure of
Islam was built and lit the way for the rest of ummah to follow.
With this sincere love, the Prophet (PBUH) was able to build a model
human society, based on the brotherhood of faith, a society that
was remarkable both in its strength, durability and ability to make
sacrifices in the cause of jihad to spread Islam throughout the
world, and in the solidarity of its members, which the Prophet (PBUH)
described in the most marvelous way: "Believers are like a
structure, parts of which support other parts."9

"The believers,
in their mutual friendship, mercy and affection, are like one body:
if any part of it complains, the rest of the body will also stay
awake in pain."10

From the very
beginning and throughout history, the Muslim woman has always participated
in the building of the Islamic society that is based on the brotherhood
of faith, and she is still doing her share of the efforts to spread
the blessed virtue of love for the sake of Allah (SWT) in Muslim
society, turning to her sisters and friends with an overflowing
heart to strengthen the ties of love and sisterhood for the sake
of Allah (SWT).

She does not
forsake or abandon her sister

The Muslim woman
who truly understands the teachings of Islam does not ignore the
fact that Islam, which encourages brotherly love and mutual affection,
is also the religion that has forbidden brothers and sisters in
faith to hate or abandon one another. Islam has explained that two
people who truly love one another for the sake of Allah (SWT) will
not be separated by the first minor offence that either of them
may commit, because the bond of love for the sake of Allah (SWT)
is too strong to be broken by such minor matters. The Prophet (PBUH)
said: "No two people who love one another for the sake of Allah
(SWT), or for the sake of Islam, will let the first minor offence
of either of them come between them."11

Anger may strike
a woman in moments of human weakness, and she may hurt her sister,
which could provoke harsh feelings and conflicts. In such cases,
the Muslim woman should not forget that Islam does not ignore human
nature and its vulnerability to changing emotions. For this reason,
Islam has defined the length of time during which anger may subside.
This time is considered to be three days. After this time has passed,
it is forbidden for the two conflicting parties to refuse to seek
a reconciliation. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "It is not permissible
for a Muslim to be estranged from his brother for more than three
days, both of them turning away from one another when they meet.
The better of them is the one who is first to greet the other."12

The word "Muslim"
obviously includes both men and women when it occurs in hadith like
this, which set out the regulations governing the lives of individuals,
families and societies in the world of Islam.

Hence we can
see that the Muslim woman whose soul has been shaped by Islam does
not persist in ignoring her sister, no matter what the reason. Rather,
she will hasten to bring about a reconciliation and greet her with
salam, because she knows that the better of them is the one who
is the first to greet the other. If her sister returns her salam,
both of them will share the reward for the reconciliation, but if
she does not return the greeting, then then one who gave the greeting
will be absolved of the sin of forsaking her sister, while the one
who refused to return the salam will have to bear the burden of
that sin alone. This is made clear by the hadith in which Abu Hurayrah
said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: `It is not
permissible for a man to be estranged from a believer for more than
three days. If three days have passed, then he should go and give
salam to him; if he returns the salam, then both of them will have
share in the reward, and if he does not respond then the one who
gave the salam will be absolved of the sin of estrangement."13

It goes without
saying that the word "man" in the context of this hadith
refers to both men and women. The longer the period of estrangement
lasts, the greater the sin of both parties becomes, as the Prophet
(PBUH) said: "Whoever forsakes his brother for a year, it is
as if he had shed his blood."14

How evil is
the crime of forsaking one's brother or sister, according to Islam!
How heavy is the burden of the one who is guilty of this crime that
is likened to the shedding of blood! The Islamic system of education
is based on mutual love and affection, and ongoing contact. Therefore
Islam wants Muslim men and women to eliminate hatred and envy from
their lives, and not to give any room to those evil characteristics
that contradict the brotherhood of faith. Hence Islam is filled
with teachings that describe the best ethics ever known since man
first walked on the face of the earth: "Do not break off ties
with one another, do not turn away from one another, do not hate
one another, do not envy one another. Be brothers, as Allah (SWT)
has commanded you."15

of suspicion, for speaking on the basis of suspicion is the worst
kind of lie. Do not seek out one another's faults, do not spy on
one another, do not compete with one another, do not envy one another,
do not hate one another, and do not turn away from one another.
O servants of Allah (SWT), be brothers."16

"Do not
envy one another, do not outbid one another (in order to inflate
prices), do not hate one another, do not turn away from one another,
and do not enter into a transaction when others have already entered
into it. O servants of Allah (SWT), be brothers. A Muslim is the
brother of a Muslim. He does not oppress him, humiliate him or look
down upon him. Taqwa is here" - and so saying, he pointed to
his chest three times. "It is evil enough for a man to look
down upon his Muslim brother. The whole of a Muslim's being is sacred
to another Muslim - his blood, his wealth and his honor are inviolable."17

The Muslim woman
who has received a sound Islamic education thinks deeply about these
teachings of the Prophet (PBUH), which contain all the most noble
characteristics such as love, friendship, brotherhood, sincerity,
compassion and selflessness. She will not be able to persist in
her hatred, for nobody can do so except the one who is mean and
narrow-minded, or has a diseased heart or twisted nature. The true
Muslim woman is far removed from such evil characteristics.

Therefore Islam
issues a stern warning to those hard-hearted people, men and women
alike, who are deviating from true Islam and its spirit of tolerance
by insisting on remaining estranged. They are risking an awful fate
in the Hereafter: their actions may prevent them from attaining
the mercy and forgiveness of Allah (SWT), and may close the doors
of Paradise to them. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “The doors of Paradise
are opened on Monday and Thursday, and every servant who does not
associate anything with Allah (SWT) will be forgiven, except for
the man who bears a grudge against his brother. It will be said,
`Wait for these two until they reconcile, wait for these two until
they reconcile, wait for these two until they reconcile.'"18

The great Sahabi
Abu'l-Darda' (RAA) used to say: "Shall I not tell you about
something that is better for you than charity and fasting? Reconcile
between your brothers, for hatred diminishes reward."19

How important
it is for women to understand and meditate upon this great Sahabi's
penetrating insight into the spirit of this religion, which is based
on brotherhood and love, when they have arguments and conflicts.
Abu'l-Darda', whose intelligence and good sense the Prophet (PBUH)
used to trust, understood that hatred cancels out good deeds and
destroys rewards, so reconciling the estranged Muslim with his brother
is better for him than charity and fasting, because if he were to
continue bearing a grudge against his brother, this would negate
any reward he might receive for those acts of worship.

She is tolerant
and forgiving towards them

The Muslim woman
who is truly guided by Islam is tolerant towards her friends and
sisters, and does not bear grudges against them. If she becomes
angry with one of her sisters, she restrains heanger and freely
forgives the one who has committed an error, without seeing any
shame in doing so. In fact, she sees this as a good deed which will
bring her closer to Allah (SWT): ( . . . [those] who restrain anger
and pardon (all) men - for Allah loves those who do good.) (Qur'an

If a person
suppresses his or her seething anger, and does not forgive, that
anger will turn into resentment and malice, which are more dangerous
than anger. When a person forgives and forgets, the flames of anger
are extinguished, and his or her soul is cleansed of the effects
of anger and hatred. This is the level of ihsan which earns Allah's
(SWT) love for those who attain it: ( . . . for Allah loves those
who do good.) (Qur'an 3:134)

The Muslim woman
who truly adheres to the teachings of Islam is one of this group
of muhsinin. She does not allow anger to continue boiling in her
heart, because suppressed resentment is a very heavy burden on the
soul; rather, she hastens to forgive and forget, thus freeing herself
from this burden, and filling her soul with tranquillity and peace
of mind.

Something that
may help the Muslim woman to reach this difficult level of ihsan
is the knowledge that forgiving one's sister is not a source of
humiliation or shame, rather it will raise her in status and honor
in the sight of Allah (SWT), as the Prophet (PBUH) described: "Allah
(SWT) will not increase His servant when he forgives except in honor.
Noone humbles himself for the sake of Allah (SWT) but Allah (SWT)
will raise his status."20

If we compare
this honour and status with the status of ihsan reached by the woman
who is tolerant and forgiving, we will realize what an honor she
has attained, for in the sight of Allah (SWT) she is one of the
muhsinat, and in the sight of people she is a respected, beloved

The Muslim woman
who has truly understood the teachings of Islam cannot have any
trace of hatred or resentment in her heart towards anybody, because
she understands precisely the value of forgiveness and purity of
heart, and their importance if she seeks Allah's (SWT) forgiveness
and pleasure, as the Prophet (PBUH) explained: "There are three
sins, whoever dies free of these sins will be forgiven for anything
else, if Allah (SWT) wills: associating anything with Allah (SWT);
practicing magic or witchcraft; and bearing resentment towards his

She meets them
with a smiling face

The true Muslim
woman is cheerful of countenance, always greeting her sisters with
warmth and smiles, as the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Do not think
little of any good deed, even if it is just greeting your brother
with a cheerful countenance."22

Having a cheerful
and friendly face is a good characteristic which Islam encourages
and considers to be a good deed which will bring reward, because
a cheerful face mirrors a pure soul. This inward and outward purity
is one of the distinguishing features of the sincere Muslim. Hence
the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Your smiling at your brother is an
act of charity (sadaqah)."23

The Prophet
(PBUH) was cheerful of countenance, always greeting his Sahabah
with warmth and smiles whenever he saw them, as the great Sahabi
Jarir ibn `Abdullah described: "From the time I embraced Islam,
the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) never refused to see me and he never
saw me except with a smile on his face."24

Islam wants
the ties of friendship and brotherhood/sisterhood to remain strong
among the Muslims, so it encouraged them to spread salam, to be
cheerful of countenance, to speak gently and to greet one another
warmly, so that hearts will remain pure and open, ready to work
together in kindness to do good deeds, and capable of carrying out
the duties of Islam no matter what effort and sacrifices may be

She is sincere
towards them

One of the virtues
of the true Muslim woman is that she is completely sincere, towards
Allah (SWT), His Prophet, and to the leaders and the masses of the
Muslims, as is stated in the sahih hadith: "Religion is sincerity25."
We [the Sahabah] asked, "To whom?"

He [the Prophet
(PBUH)] said: "To Allah (SWT) (by obeying Him, attributing
to Him what He deserves and performing jihad for His sake); to His
Book (by reading it, understanding it and applying it to one's daily
life); to His Prophet (by respecting him greatly and fighting on
his behalf both in his lifetime and after his death, and by following
his sunnah); to the rulers of the Muslims (by helping them in their
task of leading Muslims to the right path and alerting them if they
are heedless); and to their common folk (by being merciful towards

This attitude
makes the Muslim woman sincere towards her sisters. She does not
cheat them, mislead them, or conceal anything good from them. When
she is always sincere towards them it is not merely for the sake
of courtesy or to show off her social manners; she behaves in this
way because sincerity is one of the fundamental bases of Islam which
the first believers used to pledge to observe in their oath of allegiance
(bay`ah) to of the Prophet (PBUH), as Jarir ibn `Abdullah stated:
"I gave allegiance to the Prophet (PBUH) and pledged to observe
regular prayer, to pay zakat, and to be sincere towards every Muslim."27

In the hadith
quoted above, we see that the Prophet (PBUH) summed up Islam in
one word, nasihah, showing that sincerity is the central foundation
of the faith. For without sincerity, a person's faith is invalid
and his or her Islam is worthless. This is the meaning of the hadith
of the Prophet (PBUH): "None of you truly believes until he
likes for his brother what he likes for himself."28

This is impossible
to achieve unless one loves one's brother with all sincerity.

A person's liking
for his brother what he likes for himself is no easy matter. It
is very difficult to attain, and no man or woman can attain it except
the one who has received a sound Islamic education, whose heart
has been cleansed of all selfishness, hatred, envy and malice, and
who is infused with love for others.

The true Muslim
woman who feels in the depths of her soul that her love for her
sister is one of the conditions of true faith and that her religion
is based on sincerity, is more likely to attain that difficult level;
indeed, it is something that comes naturally to her in her dealings
with her friends and sisters, and she becomes a truthful mirror
to them, advising and correcting them, and wishing them nothing
but good, as Abu Hurayrah used to say: "The believer is the
mirror of his brother. If he sees any fault in him, he corrects

In these words,
Abu Hurayrah was echoing the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH): "The
believer is the mirror of his brother. The believer is the brother
of a believer: he protects him from ruin and guards his back."30

It is natural
that the true Muslim woman should have this noble attitude towards
her sister. She could not do otherwise, even if she wanted to: the
person who is living on such an exalted level of purity, love, loyalty
and sisterhood cannot come down to the level of hatred, betrayal,
malice, selfishness and jealousy. A vessel will leak whatever is
in it; musk cannot but smell beautiful; and good soil cannot but
bring forth good produce. How beautifully the poet Zuhayr ibn Abi
Sulma expressed this: "Does any plant produce large flowers
but the washij (a plant with spear-like leaves)?

Are palm-trees
planted anywhere except in the soil which is suitable for them?"31

She is faithful
and kind towards them

Islam does not
stop at encouraging its followers to respect and be kind to their
friends; it also encourages them to be kind to their parents' friends
too, in recognition of the virtue of kindness and loyalty and in
order to establish these values as an essential part of Islamic
life. The books of our heritage are filled with reports of loyalty
and kindness that the salaf embodied in their daily lives, so that
they became a fine example for all of mankind.

An example of
this is the hadith narrated by Imam Muslim in his Sahih from Ibn
`Umar (RAA), in which the Prophet (PBUH) said: "The best kind
of goodness (b) is that a man should keep in touch with and respect
his father's friend."32

The Prophet
(PBUH) used to nurture the souls of the Muslims and plant the seeds
of faithfulness in them whenever he found an opportunity to tell
them something of his guidance. A man of Banu Salamah came to him
and asked: "O Messenger of Allah, is there any deed of kindness
and respect that I can do for my parents after they die?" He
said, "Yes, pray for them, ask forgiveness for them, fulfil
their promises after they die, keep in contact with your relatives
- for you have no relatives except through them - and honour their

The Prophet
(PBUH) set the highest example of faithfulness and kindness by taking
care of Khadijah's friends after she died. He never forgot them
or neglected to treat them kindly. The Prophet's concern for the
friends of Khadijah (May Allah be pleased with her) upset `A'ishah
(May Allah be pleased with her), who felt jealous of her. This is
clear from the words of `A'ishah: "I never felt jealous of
any of the wives of the Prophet (PBUH) as I did of Khadijah (May
Allah be pleased with her), although I had never seen her. But he
used to mention her often, and sometimes he would slaughter a sheep,
butcher the meat, and send it to Khadijah's friends. One time I
said to him, `It is as if there were no other woman in the world
but Khadijah!' He said, `She was such-and-such, and I had children
by her.'"34

According to
another report: "He used to slaughter a sheep and send to her
friends a goodly amount of it."35

By this example,
the Prophet (PBUH) expanded the concept of faithfulness and kindness
to include the distant friends of deceased parents and wives. So
what about our own friends who are still alive!

She is kind
to them

The Muslim woman
who is truly guided by Islam is never arrogant towards her sisters
and friends; she is never sullen towards them, and never uses harsh
words with them. She is always kind, gentle and friendly towards
them, treating them well and speaking nicely to them. The words
of Allah (SWT) describing the believers, men and women, as being
( . . . lowly [or humble] with the believers, mighty against the
kafirun . . .) (Qur'an 5:54) are sufficient to give her the most
vivid picture of how the Muslim woman should be with her friends
and sisters. The ideal situation is to be so gentle and kind that
it almost looks like humility.

When the Muslim
woman hears the Prophet's teachings she finds strong evidence in
support of kindness towards others; it is described as something
that may adorn every aspect of life, as the Prophet (PBUH) said:
"There is no kindness in a thing but it adds beauty to it,
and there is no absence of kindness but it disfigures a thing."36

When the Muslim
woman studies the life of the Prophet (PBUH), she is impressed by
the magnificent nature of his character, his overwhelming gentleness
and his utmost kindness in his dealings with people. He was never
known to scowl at anybody, or to speak harshly, or to be severe
or harsh-hearted. Allah (SWT) indeed spoke the truth when He said:
( . . . Were you severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken
away from about you . . .) (Qur'an 3:159)

Anas (RAA),
his servant and constant companion, described his noble character
thus: "I served the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) for ten years,
and he never said to me `Uff! [The smallest word of contempt]. If
I did something, he never said `Why did you do that?' and if I did
not do something, he never said `Why did you not do that?'"37

Anas also said:
"The Prophet (PBUH) never used obscene language, or uttered
curses and insults. If he wanted to rebuke someone, he would say,
`What is the matter with him, may his forehead be covered with dust!38'"39

She does not
gossip about them The alert Muslim woman does not allow herself
to be drawn into gossip or to attend gatherings where gossip takes
place. She restrains her tongue and refrains from gossiping in general,
and avoids backbiting about her friends and sisters in particular.
She regards it as her duty to prevent gatherings from sinking to
the level of cheap gossip, because gossip is clearly haram according
to the words of the Qur'an: ( . . . Nor speak ill of each other
behind their back. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his
dead brother? Nay, you would abhor it. But fear Allah, for Allah
is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.) (Qur'an 49:12)

The Muslim woman
always refrains from indulging in any talk that could lead to gossip.
From her understanding of Islam, she knows that it is the tongue
that may lead its owner to Hell, as stated in the hadith in which
the Prophet (PBUH) warned Mu`adh ibn Jabal. He took hold of his
tongue and said, "Restrain this." Mu`adh said, "O
Messenger of Allah, will we be held responsible for what we say?"
The Prophet (PBUH) said: "May your mother be bereft of you!
Is there anything that causes people to be thrown into Hell on their
faces (or he said: on their noses) but the harvest of their tongues?"40

Gossip is an
evil characteristic which does not befit the Muslim woman who has
been guided by Islam. Such a woman refuses to be two-faced, hypocritical
or fickle, gossiping about her friends and sisters in their absence,
then when she meets them, she smiles warmly and makes a display
of friendship. She knows that such fickleness is haram according
to Islam, which is based on straightforwardness, honesty and frankness.
Such good qualities come naturally to believing men and women, for
Islam has made them despise inconsistency, fickleness and hypocrisy.
These characteristics are regarded as so loathsome by Islam that
the one who possesses them is described as being two-faced, and
those who are two-faced, men and women alike, are among the worst
of people in the sight of Allah (SWT), as the Prophet (PBUH) said:
"You will find among the worst people in the sight of Allah
(SWT) on the Day of Judgement, the one who is two-faced, who approaches
some people in one way and some in another."41

The true Muslim
woman is straightforward and consistent, never two-faced. She is
always bright and cheerful, and treats all people in the same, noble,
manner. She never forgets that the woman who is two-faced is a hypocrite:
Islam and hypocrisy do not go together, and the woman who is a hypocrite
will be in the lowest level of Hell.

She avoids arguing
with them, making hurtful jokes and breaking promises

Among the good
manners of the true Muslim woman are a sense of moderation, wisdom
and tact. She does not exhaust her friends with irritating arguments,
she does not annoy them with hurtful jokes, and she does not break
a promise that she has made to them. In this, she follows the guidance
of the Prophet (PBUH): "Do not argue with your brother, do
not joke excessively with him, do not make a promise to him then
break it."42

Excessive arguing
is a repulsive habit that fills people's hearts with hatred and
disgust; making hurtful jokes destroys the purity of a friendship
between two sisters; and breaking promises weakens the ties of sisterhood
and friendship, and destroys mutual respect. The alert Muslim woman
avoids behaving in such a way that makes a person despicable.

She is generous
and honours her sisters

The Muslim woman
who understands the teachings of her religion is generous and gives
freely to her friends and sisters. Her approach is friendly and
sincere when she invites them, she welcomes them warmly and offers
them food generously.

Friendly gatherings
over food strengthen the ties of sisterhood and friendship between
sisters, filling their lives with the sense of noble human emotions
that have been lost by the Western woman raised in a materialistic
culture, who has been filled with the spirit of opportunism, selfishness
and individualism. The Western woman is suffering from spiritual
emptiness and emotional dryness which result in a feeling of being
deprived of true friendship and sincere friends. This is the situation
of Westerners in general, and Western women in particular, and they
compensate for it by devoting themselves to caring for their dogs,
to makup for the lack of human emotional warmth drained from them
by their materialistic philosophy. A French report states that there
are seven million dogs in France, a country whose population is
fifty-two million. These dogs live with their owners like one of
the family. It is no longer strange in French restaurants to see
a dog and its owner eating together at the same table. When an official
of the animal welfare organization in Paris was asked, "Why
do the French treat their dogs like they treat themselves?"
he answered, "Because they want someone to love, but they cannot
find any person to love."43

The materialistic
man, whether in the West or in the East, can no longer find a true,
sincere friend in his own society on whom to bestow his love and
affection. So he turns to these animals in whom he finds more gentleness
and faithfulness than in the people around him. Can man become any
more emotionally degenerate than this extreme love for animals when
he has lost the blessing of faith and guidance?

This emotional
degeneration from which Westerners are suffering and which has dried
up the human feelings in their souls, is one of the first things
that attracted the attention of emigrant Arab writers, both Muslim
and non-Muslim. They noticed that the materialistic lifestyle that
has overtaken Western societies has made men into machines who know
nothing in life but work, productivity and fierce competition, who
do not know what it is to smile warmly at a friend. They are overwhelmed
by the haste and crowds of this machine-like existence. Seeing all
of this alarmed those Arab writers, who had grown up in the Islamic
world and breathed its spirit of tolerance, and whose hearts were
filled with brotherly love. So they began earnestly calling the
Westerners towards the values of love and brotherhood. One of them
was Nasib Aridah, who raised the banner of this humane call to the
Westerner whose heart was stained with materialism and who had been
blinded and deafened by the roar of the machines: "O my friend,
O my companion, O my colleague, my love for you is not out of curiosity
or a desire to impose on you./ Answer me with the words `O my brother!'
O my friend, and repeat it, for these are the sweetest words./ If
you wish to walk alone, or if you grow bored of me,/ then go ahead,
but you will hear my voice, calling `O my brother,' bearing the
message,/ and the echo of my love will reach you wherever you are,
so you will understand its beauty and its glory."44

The burden of
materialistic life in the West became too much for Yusuf As`ad Ghanim
to bear, and he could no longer stand this life which was full of
problems and sinking in the ocean of materialism, and was devoid
of the fresh air of spirituality, brotherhood and affection. So
he began to long for the Arab countries of the Islamic world, the
lands of Prophethood and spirituality, the home of love, brotherhood
and purity. He wished that he could live in an Arab tent, and leave
behind the civilized world with all its noise and glaring lights:
"If I were to live a short life in any Arab land, I would thank
Allah (SWT) for a short but rich life in a world where He is loved
in the hearts of its people. I got so tired of the West that tiredness
itself got bored of me. Take your cars and planes, and give me a
camel and a horse. Take the Western world, land, sea and sky, and
give me an Arab tent which I will pitch on one of the mountains
of my homeland Lebanon, or on the banks of Barada or the shores
of the Tigris and Euphrates, in the suburbs of `Amman, in the deserts
of Saudi Arabia, in the unknown regions of Yemen, on the slopes
of the Pyramids, in the oases of Libya. . . Give me an Arab tent,
and I will weigh it against the entire world and emerge a winner.
. ."45

Many writings
by emigrant Arab writers share the same tone, but it is sufficient
to give just a few examples here. All of their writings express
the emigrants' longing for the emotional richness that they missed
when they came to the West, an experience which awoke in them feelings
of longing for the East where Islam had spread love, brotherhood,
mutual affection and solidarity.

Islam planted
the seeds of love and brotherhood in the souls of its followers,
and encouraged them to make friends and exhange invitations and
visits. Those who invite others to these kinds of gatherings are
described as being among the best of people: "The best of you
is the one who offers food freely and returns the greeting of salam."46

The Prophet
(PBUH) gave good news to those who are generous, men and women alike,
that they will be among those who will enter Paradise in peace:
"Spread salam, offer food generously, uphold the ties of kinship,
stand in prayer at night when people are sleeping, and enter Paradise
in peace."47

The Prophet
(PBUH) further encouraged these generous people with the promise
of special chambers in Paradise: "In Paradise there are rooms
whose outside can be seen from the inside, and whose inside can
be seen from the outside. Allah (SWT) has prepared them for those
who feed others generously, who are gentle in speech, who fast continuously,
and who stand in prayer at night when people are sleeping."48

She prays for
her sisters in their absence

The sincere
Muslim woman whose heart is filled with the sweetness of faith likes
for her Muslim sister what she likes for herself. So she never forgets
to pray for her in her absence, a du`a' that is filled with the
warmth of sincere love and sisterhood. She knows that such du`a's
are the quickest to be answered because of their sincerity and warmth
of feeling and the noble intention behind them. This is confirmed
by the words of the Prophet (PBUH): "The quickest prayer to
be answered is a man's supplication for his brother in his absence."49

The Sahabah
understood this and used to ask their brothers to pray for them
whenever they were in a situation where their prayers would be answered.
Men and women alike shared this virtue, which is indicative of the
high level of the entire society during that golden period of our
history. Bukhari reports, in al-Adab al-Mufrad, from Safwan ibn
`Abdullah ibn `Safwan, whose wife was al-Darda' bint Abi'l-Darda'.
He said: "I came to visit them in Damascus, and found Umm al-Darda'
in the house, but Abu'l-Darda' was not there. She said, `Do you
want to go for Hajj?' I said, `Yes.' She said, `Pray for me, for
the Prophet (PBUH) used to say, "The Muslim's prayer for his
absent brother will be answered. There is an angel at his head who,
whenever he prays for his brother, says, `Amin, and you shall have
likewise.'"'" He (Safwan) said, "I met Abu'l-Darda'
in the market and he told me something similar, reporting from the
Prophet (PBUH)."50

The Prophet
(PBUH) instilled team spirit in the souls of Muslim men and women
at every opportunity, strengthening the ties of love for the sake
of Allah (SWT) between them, spreading an attitude of selflessness,
and uprooting the inclination towards individualism and selfishness,
in order that the Muslim society should be infused with feelings
of love, close ties, solidarity and selflessness.

One of the brillliant
ways in which he instilled this team spirit was his response to
the man who prayed out loud: "O Allah (SWT), forgive me and
Muhammad only." He told him, "You have denied it to many

In this way,
the Prophet (PBUH) did not just correct this man alone, but he effectively
instilled team spirit in the entire ummah of Islam, and taught every
Muslim man and women, no matter when or where they lived, that it
is not right for anyone who has uttered the words of the Shahadah
to keep goodness to himself, because the believer should always
like for his brother what he likes for himself.

In conclusion,
then, this is how the Muslim woman who has received a sound Islamic
education should be: she loves her sisters for the sake of Allah
(SWT), and her sisterly love towards them is sincere and in their
best interests; she likes for them what she likes for herself; she
is keen to maintain the ties of love and sisterhood between them,
and she does not cut them or forsake them; she is tolerant and forgiving
of their mistakes and faults; she does not bear any hatred, envy
or malice towards them; she always greets them with a cheerful,
smiling face; she is kind and loyal towards them; she does not gossip
about them; she does not hurt their feelings by being hostile or
arguing with them; she is generous to them; she prays for them in
their absence.

It is no surprise
that the Muslim woman whose personality has been cleansed and moulded
by Islam should have such noble characteristics. This is the miracle
that Islam has wrought in the education and forming of human character,
no matter where or when a man or woman lives.


Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 1/49, Kitab al-iman, bab halawat al-iman.

Sahih Muslim,
16/123, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab fadl al-hubb fi

Reported by
Tirmidhi, 4/24, Bab ma ja'a fi al-hubb fi-Allah; he said, it is
a sahih hasan hadith.

Sahih Muslim,
16/124, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab fadl al-hubb fi-Allah.

Reported with
a sahih isnad by Abu Dawud, 4/452, Kitab al-adab, bab akhbar al-rajul
bi mahabbatihi ilayh.

Reported with
a sahih isnad by Ahmad, 5/245.

Reported by
Malik in al-Muwatta', 2/953, Kitab al-shi'r, bab ma ja'a fi'l-muthabbayn
fi-Allah. Sahih Muslim, 2/35, Kitab al-iman, bab bayan annahu la
yadkhul al-jannah illa'l-mu'minin.

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 13/47, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah, bab
ta'awun al-mu'minin wa tarahumuhum.


Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/493, Bab hijrah al-Muslim.

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 13/100, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah, bab
al-nahy 'an hijran al-ikhwan.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/505, Bab inna al-salam yujzi' min

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/497, Bab man hajara akhahu sanah.

Sahih Muslim,
16/120, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab tahrim al-zann wa'l-tajassus

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 13/109, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah, bab
ma la yajuz min al-zann.

Sahih Muslim,
16/120, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab tahrim zulm al-Muslim
wa khadhaluhu wa ihtiqarahu.

Sahih Muslim,
16/122, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab al-nahy 'an al-shahna'.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/505, Bab al-shahna'. Sahih Muslim,
16/141, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah

wa'l-adab, bab
istihbab al-'afuw wa'l-tawadu'.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/505, Bab al-shahna'.

Sahih Muslim,
16/177, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab istihbab talaqah
al-wajh 'ind al-liqa'.

Reported by
Tirmidhi, 3/228, Abwab al-birr, 36. He said it is hasan gharib.

Fath al-Bari,
10/504, Kitab al-adab, bab al-tabassum wa'l-dahk; Sahih Muslim,
16/35, Kitab fada'il al-sahabah, bab fada'il Jarir ibn 'Abdullah.

Nasihah is an
Arabic word that may be translated by a number of words in English.
The most common translation is "good advice," but it also
carries connotations of sincerity, integrity, and "doing justice
to a person or situation." [Translator] Sahih Muslim, 2/37,
Kitab al-iman, bab bayan an al-din nasihah. The explanations in
brackets are adapted from those given in the English translation
of Sahih Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Vol. 1, p. 48). [Translator]

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 1/63, Kitab al-iman, bab al-bay'ah

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Sharh al-Sunnah, 13/60, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah, bab
yuhibbu li akhihi ma yuhibbu li nafsihi.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/333, Bab al-Muslim mir'ah akhihi.


Sharh Diwan
Zuhayr, 115, published by Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah.

Sahih Muslim,
16/110, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab fadl silah asdiqa'
al-abb wa'l-umm.

Reported by
Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, 2/162, Kitab al-birr wa'l-ihsan, bab haqq

Fath al-Bari,
7/133, Kitab manaqib al-Ansar, bab tazwij al-Nabi (SAAS) Khadijah
wa fadliha; Sahih Muslim, 15/201, Kitab al-fada'il, bab fada'il

Fath al-Bari,
7/133, Kitab manaqib al-Ansar, bab tazwij al-Nabi (SAAS) Khadijah
wa fadliha.

Sahih Muslim,
16/146, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab fadl al-rifq.

Bukhari and
Muslim. See Riyad al-Salihin, 336, Bab husn al-khalq.

It has been
suggested that what was meant by this expression was that the Prophet
(PBUH) was praying that the person would increase his sujud, i.e.
pray more, as this would guide and reform him. [Author]

Fath al-Bari,
10/452, Kitab al-adab, bab lam yakun al-Nabi (PBUH) fashishan wa
la mutafahhishan.

A sahih hasan
hadith narrated by Ibn Majah, 2/1315, Kitab al-fitan.

Fath al-Bari,
10/474, Kitab al-adab, bab ma qila fi dhi'l-wajhayn; Sahih Muslim,
16/157, Kitab al-birr wa'l-silah wa'l-adab, bab dhamm dhi'l-wajhayn.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 1/485, bab la ta'id akhaka shay'an
fa tukhlifahu.

Prof. Wahid
al-Din Khan, Wujub tatbiq al-shari'ah alislamiyyah fi kulli zaman
wa makan ("The necessity of applying Islamic shari'ah in every
time and place"), in al-Mujtama', No. 325, Kuwait, 24 Dhu'l-Qi'dah
1396/16 November 1976.

Diwan al-arwah
al-ha'irah, qism al-naz'ah al-insaniyyah.

See 'Isa al-Na'uri,
Adab al-Mahjar, Dar al-Ma'arif bi Misr, p. 527

A hasan hadith
narrated by Ahmad, 6/16.

A sahih hadith
narrated by Ahmad, 2/295, and al-Hakim 4/129, Kitab al-at'amah.

A hasan hadith
narrated by Ahmad, 5/343 and Ibn Hibban, 2/262, Kitab al-birr wa'l-ihsan,
bab ifsha' al-salam wa it'am al-ta'am.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 2/83, Bab du'a' al-akh bi zahr al-ghayb.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 2/84, Bab al-du'a' bi zahr al-ghayb.

Reported by
Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, 2/85, Bab al-du'a' bi zahr al-ghayb.

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Thursday, December 8, 2011

Evil Deeds that Lead One to Hell


Evil Deeds that Lead One to Hell

    Sheikh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah (swt) have mercy
on him, was asked: "What are the deeds of the people of Hell and
what are the deeds of the people of Paradise?" He replied, "The
deeds of the people of Hell are:


* associating partners in worship with Allah (swt)
disbelieving in His Messenger
* kufr (ingratitude,
* hasad (malicious envy)
* lying
* treachery

* oppression and wrongdoing (dhulm)
* promiscuity
* cutting off the ties of kinship
* cowardice at
the time of jihaad
* miserliness
* inconsistency between what
is in one's heart and the face one shows to people
* despairing
of the mercy of Allah (swt)
* feeling secure from the plan of
Allah (swt)
* panicking blindly at the time of crisis
pride and extravagance at the time of plenty
* abandoning one's
duties towards Allah (swt)
* transgressing His limits
violating His sanctity
* fearing a created being instead of the
* showing off
* going against the Qur'an and Sunnah
in word or deed
* obeying a created being in some act of
disobedience to the Creator
* blindly supporting falsehood
mocking the signs of Allah (swt)
* rejecting the truth
withholding knowledge and testimony that should be revealed
witchcraft and magic
* disobeying one's parents
* killing any
soul forbidden by Allah (swt) except for reasons of justice
consuming the wealth of the orphan
* riba (usury)
* desertion
from the battlefield
* slandering the reputation of innocent,
chaste, believing women" (Yaqadhat uli al-I'tibar, p.222)

The Messenger of Allah (saw) mentioned all the sins that
will lead one to Hell. Muslim reports from 'Iyadh bin Himaar that
the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, during a lengthy

"..the people of Hell are five: the weak who lack
the power to (avoid evil); the (carefree) who pursue (everything
irrespective of whether it is good or evil) and who have no concern
for their families or their wealth; the dishonest people whose greed
cannot be concealed even in the case of minor things; and those who
betray you, morning and evening, with regard to your family and your
property. He also mentioned misers, liars and those who are in the
habit of abusing people and using obscene, foul language".
(Muslim in Kitaab al-Jannah wa Sifaat Na'imihaa Baab
as-Sifaat allaatee yu'raf bihaa fid-dunyaa ahl al-Jannah wa ahl
an-Naar, 4/2197 no. 2865)

The Worst Evil De


The Worst Evil Deeds of Those Who Will Remain Forever in

Qur'an speaks at length of the evil deeds for which those who will abide
in the Hell forever deserve their never-ending fate. Here we will mention
the most serious of them.


(1) Kufr and Shirk
: Allah (swt) tells us that it will
be said to those who disbelieved, when they are in the Fire, that Allah's
hatred of them will be greater than their own hatred towards themselves
because of their disbelief. Then He explains that their eternal fate in
Hell is because of their kufr and shirk:

"The unbelievers will be addressed: "Greater was the
aversion of Allah to you than [is] your aversion to yourselves, seeing
that you were called to the Faith but you used to refuse. They will say,
"Our Rabb! Twice have You made us without life, and twice have You given
us life! Now have we recognised our sins: is there any way out [of this]?"
[The answer will be]: "This is because, when Allah was invoked as the
Only [object of worship] you did reject Faith, but when partners were
joined to Him, you believed! The Command is only with Allah, All-High,

Allah (swt) tells us that the keeper of Hell will ask the
kuffaar as they are approaching Hell:

"Did there not come to you your messengers with clear

The response will be that they deserved Hell because they
disbelieved in the Messengers and their Message:

"They will say, "Yes indeed; a Warner did come to us, but we
rejected him" and said: "Allah never sent down any [Message] you are in
nothing but a great error!"

Concerning those who disbelieved in the Qur'an, Allah (swt)

"for We have sent you a Message from Our own presence. If
any do turn away therefrom, verily they will bear a burden on the Day of
Judgement. They will abide in this [state] and grievous will that burden
be to them on that Day".

Concerning those who disbelieve the Qur'an and associate
partners with Allah (swt), Allah (swt) says:

"Those who reject the Book and the [Revelations] with which
We sent Our Messengers: but soon shall they know, when the yokes [shall
be] round their necks, and the chains, they shall be dragged along. In the
boiling fetid fluid, then in the Fire shall they be burned. Then shall it
be said to them, "Where are the deities to which you gave part-worship in
derogation to Allah? They will reply: "They have left us in the lurch.
Nay, we invoked not, of old, anything [that had real existence]." Thus
does Allah leave the unbelievers to stray. That was because you were want
to rejoice on the earth in things other than the Truth, and that you were
want to be ignorant. Enter the gates of Hell, to dwell therein and evil is
[this] abode of the arrogant".

Concerning those kuffaar and mushrikeen who regarded their gods
as equal to the Rabb of the Worlds, Allah (swt) says:

"Then they will be thrown headlong into the [Fire] - they and
those straying in Evil and the whole hosts of Iblees together. They will
say there in their mutual bickerings: "By Allah, we were truly in an
error manifest, when we held you [false gods] as equals with the Rabb of
the Worlds"


Concerning the fate on the Day of Judgement of those who
disbelieved, Allah said:

"If you do marvel [at their want of faith] strange is their
saying: "When we are [actually] dust, shall we indeed then be a creation
renewed?" They are those who disbelieve in their Rabb! They are those
around whose necks will be yokes [of servitude]. They will be Companions
of the Fire to dwell therein [for aye]!"


"..their abode will be Hell; every time it shows abatement,
We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire. That is their
recompense, because they rejected Our Signs and said, "When we are reduced
to bones and broken fragments, should we really be raised up [to be] a new
" (17:97-98)

(2) Failing
to fulfill the legislated duties
, as well as
denying the Day of Judgement. Allah (swt) tells us that the people of
Paradise will ask the people of Hell:

"What led you into Hellfire?"

They will reply: "..We were not of those who prayed, Nor
were we of those who fed the indigent, But we used to talk vanities with
vain talkers, And we used to deny the Day of Judgement, Until there came
to us [the Hour] that is certain."

(3) Obeying the
misguided leaders of kufr
and accepting
the principles by means of which they mislead people and turn them away
from the religion of Allah (swt) as taught by the Prophets:

"And We have destined for them intimate companions [of like
nature] who made alluring to them what was before them and what was behind
them. And the Sentence among the previous generations of jinns and men who
have passed away, is proved against them; for they are utterly lost. The
unbelievers say: "Listen not to this Qur'an but talk at random in the
midst of its [reading] that you may gain the upper hand!" But We shall
certainly give the unbelievers a taste of a severe penalty, and We shall
requite them the worst of their deeds. Such is the requital of the enemies
of Allah - the Fire, therein will be for them the eternal home, a [fit]
requital for that they used to reject Our Signs"


When the kuffaar are thrown into Hell they will be filled with
regret for having disobeyed Allah and His Messenger and having followed
their masters and leaders:

"Verily Allah has cursed the unbelievers and has prepared
for them a blazing Fire, to dwell therein; no protector will they find,
nor helper. The Day that their faces will be turned upside down in the
Fire, they will say, "Woe to us! Would that we had obeyed Allah and
obeyed the Messenger". And they would say, "Our Rabb! We obeyed our chiefs
and our great ones and they misled us as from the [Right] Path".


(4) Hypocrisy

Allah promised Hell to the hypocrites, a promise that He has
taken upon Himself to never break:

"Allah has promised the hypocrites, men and women, and the
rejecters of Faith, the fire of Hell, therein shall they dwell. Sufficient
is it for them. For them is the curse of Allah and an enduring
" (9:68)

has told us that the position of the hypocrites is the lowest level of
Hell, which si where the heat and agony are most intense:

"The hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire; no
helper will you find for them".


This is a quality shared by most of the people of Hell. Allah
(swt) says:

"But those who reject Our Signs and treat them with
arrogance - they are the Companions (dwellers) of the Fire, to dwell
therein [forever]
" (7:36)

Muslim devoted a chapter of his Saheeh to this issue, entitled
Baab an-Naar Yadhkhulha al-Jabbaaroon wal-Jannah yadkhuluha ad-du'afaa
(Hell will be entered by the arrogant and Paradise will be entered by the
weak). In this chapter he refers to the debate between Paradise and Hell,
what they said and what Allah (swt) sad to them. Muslim quotes the
hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (ra) which goes back to the Prophet (saw), in
which it is stated that Hell said, "The arrogant and proud will
enter me.
" According to another report, Hell said, "I will
become rich (have too many) from the proud and arrogant".
(swt) said, "You are My Punishment with which I will punish
whomsoever I will".
(Sahih Muslim, 4/2186, no. 2846)

al-Bukhaari, Muslim and at-Tirmidhi report from Harithah ibn
Wahb that the Messenger of Allah (swt) said: "Shall I not
tell you about the people of Paradise? Every meek person who is
considered to be so humble that if he were to adjure something by
Allah (swt), He would fulfil it for him. Shall I not tell you about
the people of Hell? Every haughty, greedy and proud person.
(Jaami' al-Usool, 10/547, no. 8111)

According to a report given by Muslim, he (saw) said,
"Every proud mean and arrogant person".
This is confirmed by the

"Is there not in Hell an abode for the Haughty [i.e.
" (39:60)

"But today shall you be recompensed with a penalty of
humiliation for that

you were
arrogant on earth without just cause, and that you [ever]


"Then, for such as had transgressed all bounds, and
had preferred the life of this world, the Abode will be



How Hell Affects this Earth and its Inhabitants


How Hell Affects this Earth and its


al-Bukhaari reports in his saheeh that Abu Hurayrah said:

"Hell complained to its Rabb, saying "O my Rabb, some parts of
me have consumed others." So He allowed it to exhale twice, once in the
winter and once in the summer. That is why you find extreme heat (in the
summer) and extreme cold (in the winter)".

al-Bukhaari also narrated from Abu Sa'eed (ra) that the Prophet
(saw) said:

"Delay your prayers until it cools down, for the
intensity of heat is from the exhaled air of Hell".
al-Bukhaari, Kitaab Bad' al-Khalq, Baab Siffaat an-naar wa annaha
makhluqah and Fath al-Baari 6/330. The author of Jaami' al-Usool 10/517
attributed these two reports to al-Bukhaari, Muslim and



The People of Hell and Their Evil Deeds

The People Who Will Abide Therein Forever


The people of Hell who will abide therein forever, never
leaving it and never dying, are the disbelievers and polytheists. Allah
(swt) says:

"But those who reject Allah, for them will be the Fire of
Hell. No term shall be determined for them, so they should die, nor shall
its penalty be lightened for them"
. (35:36)

"But those who reject Faith and belie Our Signs, they shall
be companions [or dwellers] of the Fire; they shall abide therein".


"Verily those who reject faith and die rejecting - on them
is Allah's Curse and the Curse of the Angels and of all
mankind. They will abide therein: their penalty will not be
lightened, nor will respite be their lot."


"Know they not that for those who oppose Allah and His
Messenger is the Fire of Hell - wherein they shall dwell? That is the
supreme disgrace".

"It is not for such as join gods with Allah to visit or
maintain the Mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls
to infidelity [or disbelief]. The works of such bear no fruit: In Fire
shall they dwell."

Because they will abide therein forever, Allah (swt) described
the torment of Hell as a lasting torment, one that will never end, one
that is eternal:

"Their wish will be to get out of the Fire, but never will
they get out therefrom: their Penalty will be one that endures".


"At length it will be said to the wrongdoers: "Taste you the
enduring punishment! You get but the recompense of what you earned!"

Death will be slaughtered, as is stated in the hadith narration
from Ibn 'Umar by al-Bukhaari and in Muslim from Abu Sa'eed who

"The Messenger of Allah of Allah (saw) said: "Death
will be brought like a horned ram, and will be made to stand between
Paradise and Hell". It will be said, "O people of Paradise, do you know
what this is?" They will raise their heads and look, and will say, "Yes,
this is death". It will be said, "O people of Hell, do you know what this
is?" They will raise their heads and look, and will say, "Yes, this is
death". Then the command will be given for death to be slaughtered. Then
it will be said, "O people of Paradise, it is eternal, there is no death.
O people of Hell, it is eternal, there is no death"
. Then the
Messenger of Allah (saw) recited:

"And warn them of the Day of Grief and regrets when the case
has been decided, while [now] they are in a state of carelessness, and
they believe not".

and in the narration of at-Tirmidhi, Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree
added: "If any were to die of joy it would be the people of Paradise
and if any were to die of despair, it would be the people of
. (at-Tirmidhi, said "This is a sahih hasan

2. Hell will be the Dwelling Place of the Kuffar and

Because the disbelievers and polytheists will remain in Hell
forever, it is considered to be their abode or dwelling place, just as
Paradise is the abode of the believers:

"Their abode will be the Fire; and evil is the home of the

"Their abode is the Fire, because of the [evil] they

"Is there not a home in Hell for those who reject Faith?"

Hell is abode that they deserve:

"Your abode is the Fire: that is the proper place to claim

Hell is the worst abode and destination:

"But for the wrongdoers will be an evil place of [final]
Return! - they will burn therein - an evil bed [indeed to lie on]!"


Those Who Call Others to Hell

Those who follow misguided beliefs and ideologies that
contradict the laws of Allah (Swt) and those who believe in their false
causes, these are the ones who call others to Hell:

"Those [unbelievers] do [but] beckon you to the Fire.."

"And We made them [but] leaders inviting to the Fire; and on
the Day of Judgement no help shall they find".

One of them is Shaytaan:

"..[would they do so] even if it is Shaytaan beckoning them
to the Penalty of the [Blazing] Fire?"

"He [Shaytaan} only invites his adherents that they may
become Companions of the blazing Fire"

Those who call others to the Fire in this world will lead their
people and their followers to the Fire in the Hereafter. An example is

"He will go before his people on the Day of Judgement, and
lead them into the Fire."

All evil leaders who call people to their belief systems that
go against Islaam are in fact calling people to the Fire of Hell, because
the only way to escape the Fire of Hell and enter Paradise is to follow
the path of Faith:

"And O my people! [strange] it is for me to call you to
salvation while you call me to the Fire!"

This man's people were calling him to the kufr and shirk of
Pharaoh while he was calling them to Tawheed and faith in Allah (swt).
Because the kuffaar invite people to the Fire, Allah (swt) forbade
believing men to marry mushrik women, just as He forbade believing women
to marry mushrik men:

"And do not marry unbelieving (literally, polytheist) women
until they believe. A slave woman who believes is better than a [free]
unbelieving woman, even though she allures you. Nor marry [your girls] to
unbelievers until they believer; a male slave who believes is better than
a [free] unbeliever, even though he allures you. Those [unbelievers] do
[but] beckon you to the Fire, but Allah invites by His Grace to the
Garden [of Bliss] and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind
that they may receive admonition"